Out Now: Deep Pockets #3 Scenes of Independence: Cultural Ruptures in Zagreb (1991-2019)


pdf of the Media Do Not Exist book inc_icon_lulu_@2x

By Sepp Eckenhaussen.

After the violent disintegration of Yugoslavia, a flourishing cultural scene was established in Croatia’s capital Zagreb. The scene calls itself: independent culture. In this book, Sepp Eckenhaussen explores the history of Zagreb’s independent culture through three questions: How were independent cultures born? To whom do they belong? And what is the independence in independent culture? The result is a genealogy, a personal travel log, a mapping of cores of criticality, a search for futurologies, and a theory of the scene.

Once again, it turns out that localist perspectives have become urgent to culture. The untranslatability of the local term ‘independent culture’ makes it hard for the outsider to get a thorough understanding of it. But it also makes the term into a crystal of significance and a catalyst of meaning-making towards a theory of independent culture.

Author: Sepp Eckenhaussen

Foreword: Leonida Kovač

Editing: Miriam Rasch and Rosie Underwood
Cover design: Laura Mrkša

Published by the Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam, 2019.
ISBN: 978-94-92302-40-3

This publication is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerrivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Get the book:
Order a print copy here.
Download PDF here.
Download ePub here.

Dramatic Growth of Open Access 2019

2019 was another great year for open access! Of the 57 macro-level global OA indicators included in The Dramatic Growth of Open Access, 50 (88%) have growth rates that are higher than the long-term trend of background growth of scholarly journals an d articles of 3 – 3.5% (Price, 1963; Mabe & Amin, 2001). More than half had growth rates of 10% or more, approximately triple the background growth rate, and 13 (nearly a quarter) had growth rates of over 20%.

Newer services have an advantage when growth rates are measured by percentage, and this is reflected in the over 20% 2019 growth category. The number of books in the Directory of Open Access Books tops the growth chart by nearly doubling (98% growth); bioRxiv follows with 74% growth. A few services showed remarkable growth on top of already substantial numbers. As usual, Internet Archive stands out with a 68% increase in audio recordings, a 58% increase incollections, and a 48% increase in software. The number of articles searchable through DOAJ grew by over 900,000 in 2019 (25% growth). OpenDOAR is taking off in Asia, the Americas, Africa, and overall, with more than 20% growth in each of these categories, and SCOAP3 also grew by more than 20%.

The only area indicating some cause for concern is PubMedCentral. Although overall growth of free full-text from PubMed is robust. A keyword search for “cancer” yields about 7% – 10% more free full-text than a year ago. However, there was a slight decrease in the number of journals contributing to PMC with “all articles open access”, a drop of 138 journals or a 9% decrease. I have double-checked and the 2018 and 2019 PMC journal lists have been posted in the dataverse in case anyone else would like to check (method: sort the “deposit status” column and delete all Predecessor and No New Content journals, then sort the “Open Access” column and count the number of journals that say “All”. The number of journals submitting NIH portfolio articles only grew by only 1. Could this be backtracking on the part of publishers or perhaps technical work underway at NIH?

Full data is available in excel and csv format from: Morrison, Heather, 2020, “Dramatic Growth of Open Access Dec. 31, 2019”, https://doi.org/10.5683/SP2/CHLOKU, Scholars Portal Dataverse, V1


Price, D. J. de S. (1963). Little science, big science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Mabe, M., & Amin, M. (2001). Growth dynamics of scholarly and scientific journals. Scientometrics, 51(1), 147–162.

This post is part of the Dramatic Growth of Open Access Series. It is cross-posted from The Imaginary Journal of Poetic Economics.

Cite as:

Morrison, H. (n.d.). Dramatic Growth of Open Access 2019. The Imaginary Journal of Poetic Economics. Retrieved from https://poeticeconomics.blogspot.com/2020/01/dramatic-growth-of-open-access-2019.html Cross-posted to Sustaining the Knowledge Commons https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2020/01/03/dramatic-growth-of-open-access-2019/

Out Now: TOD#32 Networked Content Analysis: The Case of Climate Change

pdf of the Media Do Not Exist book inc_icon_lulu_@2x

TOD#32: Networked Content Analysis: The Case of Climate Change

By Sabine Niederer

With a foreword by Klaus Krippendorff

Climate change is one of the key societal challenges of our times, and its debate takes place across scientific disciplines and into the public realm, traversing platforms, sources, and fields of study. The analysis of such mediated debates has a strong tradition, which started in communication science and has since then been applied across a wide range of academic disciplines.

So-called ‘content analysis’ provides a means to study (mass) media content in many media shapes and formats to retrieve signs of the zeitgeist, such as cultural phenomena, representation of certain groups, and the resonance of political viewpoints. In the era of big data and digital culture, in which websites and social media platforms produce massive amounts of content and network this through hyperlinks and social media buttons, content analysis needs to become adaptive to the many ways in which digital platforms and engines handle content.

This book introduces Networked Content Analysis as a digital research approach, which offers ways forward for students and researchers who want to work with digital methods and tools to study online content. Besides providing a thorough theoretical framework, the book demonstrates new tools and methods for research through case studies that study the climate change debate with search engines, Twitter, and the encyclopedia project of Wikipedia.

Author: Sabine Niederer

Foreword: Klaus Krippendorff

Editing: Rachel O’Reilly
Visualizations: Carlo de Gaetano
Production: Sepp Eckenhaussen
Cover design: Katja van Stiphout

Supported by the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Digital Media and Creative Industries.

Published by the Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam, 2019.
ISBN: 978-94-92302-42-7

This publication is licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerrivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Get the book:
Order a print copy here.
Download PDF here.
Download ePub here.

Annual Report 2019

Annual Report 2019

As we come to the end of this year, it is with great pride that we look back at the many exciting things that have happened here at OBP in 2019!

From great new open access titles like Conservation Biology in Sub-Saharan Africa and Non-Communicable Disease Prevention, innovative publications like Annunciations: Sacred Music for the Twenty-First Century or Image, Knife, and Gluepot: Early Assemblage in Manuscript and Print to prize-winning books, new series and exciting projects, this has been a remarkable year for us.

As you prepare to celebrate the holiday season, don’t miss out on our  last 2019 newsletter to find out more about all our achievements, future plans and interesting news!

Annual Report 2019

New Open Access Publications in 2019

This year we have published a total of 30 books, which exceeds any previous year! We have not only released fantastic new titles both from first-time and returning authors but also four new textbooks and a number of enhanced editions of previously published books.

2019 opened with the publication of Life Histories of Etnos Theory in Russia and Beyond and of Delivering on the Promise of Democracy. Returning author George Corbett edited Annunciations: Sacred Music for the Twenty-First Century a collection of essays interrogating the theme of annunciations through music, which includes embedded recordings and sheet music of new choral pieces written as part of the research for the book; Image, Knife, and Gluepot: Early Assemblage in Manuscript and Print by Kathryn M. Rudy is a valuable text for any scholar in the fields of medieval studies, the history of early books and publishing, cultural history or material culture; Essays on Paula Rego by Maria Manuel Lisboa is an important collection of writings on one of the leading artists of our time.

We have added two new titles to our  OBP Series in Mathematics: the second edition of  Advanced Problems in Mathematics: Preparing for University by Stephen Siklos and The Essence of Mathematics Through Elementary Problems by Alexandre Borovik and Tony Gardiner, a textbook that consists of a sequence of 270 problems with commentary and full solutions. There have also been new additions to our OBP Classics Series from the pen of Flora Kimmich, who skilfully translated Schillers' Kabale und Liebe, and by Howard Gaskill, who has translated Hölderlin’s only novel, Hyperion.

New and very innovative titles on history, biology, linguistics and sociology approached from a non-European perspective hit the press this year! The Politics of Language Contact in the Himalaya edited by Selma K. Sonntag and Mark Turin offered readers a nuanced insight into language and its relation to power in this geopolitically complex region; History of International Relations: A Non-European Perspective by Erik Ringmar pioneered a new approach by explicitly focusing on non-European cases, debates and issues. Finally, Conservation Biology in Sub-Saharan Africa by John W. Wilson and Richard B. Primack - the first OA conservation biology textbook for Africa -  has proved an essential resource for students, as well as a handy guide for professionals working to stop the rapid loss of biodiversity in Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

This year we have also successfully published a wealth of books by many more authors, both new and returning: R. H. Winnick's Tennyson’s Poems: New Textual Parallels, Rosella Mamoli Zorzi and Katherine Manthorne's From Darkness to Light: Writers in Museums 1798-1898, Janis Jefferies and Sarah Kember's Whose Book is it Anyway? A View From Elsewhere on Publishing, Copyright and Creativity, Deborah Willis, Ellyn Toscano and Kalia Brooks Nelson's Women and Migration: Responses in Art and History, Chris Rowell's Social Media in Higher Education: Case Studies, Reflections and Analysis, The Pogroms in Ukraine, 1918-19: Prelude to the Holocaust by Nokhem Shtif, translated by Maurice Wolfthal, Make We Merry More and Less: An Anthology of Medieval English Popular Literature, edited by Douglas Gray and Jane Bliss, Infrastructure Investment in Indonesia: A Focus on Ports, edited by Colin Duffield, Felix Kin Peng Hui and Sally Wilson, Ernesto Screpanti's Labour and Value: Rethinking Marx’s Theory of Exploitation, Engaging Researchers with Data Management: The Cookbook and Joachim Otto Habeck's Lifestyle in Siberia and the Russian North. Finally, the 2019 edition of What Works in Conservation came out this summer and has since then been read more than 1500 times!

We are closing 2019 with three exciting hot-off-the-press titles: Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Best Buys, Wasted Buys and Contestable Buys, a book commissioned by the Prince Mahidol Award Conference (PMAC), an annual international conference centered on policy of global significance related to public health and written for the benefit of the global health community; Prose Fiction: An Introduction to the Semiotics of Narrative, a textbook that equips its readers with the necessary tools to embark on further study of literature, literary theory and creative writing; and The DARPA Model for Transformative Technologies: Perspectives on the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a remarkable collection of leading academic research on DARPA from a wide range of perspectives, combining to chart an important story from the Agency’s founding in the wake of Sputnik, to the current attempts to adapt it to use by other federal agencies.

We would like to thank our authors for their extraordinary work and our readers for their continued support!

Annual Report 2019

Our 2019 Open Access Series

In 2019, we have announced a number of new series all of which are open for proposals, so feel free to get in touch if you or someone you know is interested in submitting a manuscript!

The St Andrews Studies in French History and Culture Series,  previously published by the Centre for French History and Culture at the University of St Andrews, aims to enhance scholarly understanding of the historical culture of the French-speaking world and it covers the full span of historical themes relating to France: from political history, through military/naval, diplomatic, religious, social, financial, cultural and intellectual history, art and architectural history, to literary culture.
We relaunched our 2018 series Applied Theatre Praxis (ATP) which focuses on Applied Theatre practitioner-researchers who use their rehearsal rooms as "labs”; spaces in which theories are generated, explored and/or experimented with before being implemented in contentious and/or vulnerable contexts.  ATP invites writing that draws from the author’s praxis to generate theory for diverse manifestations of Applied Theatre. We would like to take this opportunity to welcome Natasha Oxley, our new member of the ATP editorial board!
 We will soon be launching the first title of our Cambridge Semitic Language and Cultures series created in collaboration with the Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Cambridge. This series includes philological and linguistic studies of Semitic languages and editions of Semitic texts. Titles in the series will cover all periods, traditions and methodological approaches to the field.

Finally, we are also welcoming chapter proposals for the book What Do We Care About? A Cross-Cultural Textbook for Undergraduate Students of Philosophical Ethics. This book is a bold attempt to provide a comprehensive and broad perspective on ethics to undergraduate students by incorporating a non-Eurocentric, non-biased way of presenting traditions from Asia, Africa, North-America, South-America, Australia and Europe. If you'd like to submit a proposal and/or find out more about the submission process for this title, please visit https://www.openbookpublishers.com/section/114/1.

For other inquiries regarding these series, you can contact our director Dr Alessandra Tosi here.

Annual Report 2019

Our Award-Winning Open Access Titles

In 2019, some of our books have been recognised with prizes for the quality of their scholarship and the innovation of their presentation:

Literature Against Criticism: University English and Contemporary Fiction in Conflict by Martin Paul Eve

Martin Eve was awarded the prestigious Philip Leverhulme Prize in 2019, and we are particularly proud that Literature Against Criticism formed a substantial part of his submission portfolio for the award. The Philip Leverhulme Prize recognises the achievement of outstanding researchers at an early stage of their careers, whose work has already attracted international recognition and whose future career is exceptionally promising. We are delighted that Martin and Literature Against Criticism have been recognised in this way.

A Fleet Street in Every Town: The Provincial Press in England, 1855-1900 by Andrew Hobbs

Winner of the 2019 Robert and Vineta Colby Scholarly Book Prize for best book on Victorian newspapers and periodicals – awarded annually by the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals.

The selection committee described the book as 'field-defining'; a title that 'convincingly challenges enduring assumptions that London newspapers acted as the national press in the Victorian period.' They exalted its 'meticulous research, originality, and significance for future scholars' of the provincial press in Britain, whilst also noting that it is 'written with imagination, flair and infectious enthusiasm', bringing 'the nineteenth century press to full, vibrant, pulsating life'.

The Jewish Unions in America: Pages of History and Memories by Bernard Weinstein, translated and annotated by Maurice Wolfthal

Winner of the 2018 Choice Review's Outstanding Academic Title.

Every year in the January issue, in print and online, Choice publishes a list of Outstanding Academic Titles that were reviewed during the previous calendar year. This prestigious list reflects the best in scholarly titles reviewed by Choice and brings with it the extraordinary recognition of the academic library community. Wolfthal's excellent title has been awarded for its overall excellence in presentation and scholarship, its importance within the field, its value to graduate students and its uniqueness of treatment.

Congratulations to the winners!

Annual Report 2019

OBP: A Top Social Enterprise

2019 has not only been a successful year for our authors but also for us since we made it to the Top 100 of the NatWest SE100 Index 2019!

This award celebrates the growth, impact and resilience of social ventures in the UK by recognising the most impressive 100 social enterprises of the year.

You can read more about this here.

Annual Report 2019

Community-led Open Publication Infrastructures for Monographs

On 14th June this year, Research England announced the award of a £2.2 million grant to the Community-led Open Publication Infrastructures for Monographs (COPIM) project, which is designed to build much-needed community-controlled, open systems and infrastructures that will develop and strengthen open access book publishing. This was followed in October by the announcement of an £800,000 grant from the Arcadia fund. Open Book Publishers is a key partner in the COPIM project, with our fellow ScholarLed presses and leading universities, libraries and infrastructure providers from the UK and around the world. COPIM will transform open access book publishing by moving away from a model of competing commercial service operations to a more horizontal and cooperative, knowledge-sharing approach.

Read more about this promising project in Lucy Barnes’s blog post and in this announcement by ScholarLed.

Annual Report 2019

New Library Members 2019

We wholeheartedly thank all the universities that have joined our membership programme in 2019 and who have decided to help us in providing academic monographs that can be read for free worldwide. The support we receive from libraries is vital to help us continue our work!

These are the libraries that joined our membership scheme in 2019:

Villanova University - United States
Earth University - Costa Rica
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya - Spain
Universidad Autónoma de Centro América - Costa Rica
Universidad de Granada - Spain
Universitat D'Alacant - Spain
University of North Alabama - United States
Universität Hamburg - Germany
Åbo Akademi University Library - Finland
Portland State University Library - United States
University of North Carolina Greensboro - United States
San Diego State University Library - United States
Edge Hill - United Kingdom
University of Derby - United Kingdom
Iowa State University Library - United States
Michigan State University  - United States
Academy of Fine Arts Vienna - Austria
BULAC (Bibliothèque universitaire des langues et civilisations) - France
Freie Universität Berlin - Germany
Turku University Library - Finland
Rowan University Libraries - United States

If you'd like to find out more about the benefits of membership for staff & students, visit http://bit.ly/2mXOfJY

Annual Report 2019

OBP Global Statistics 2019

As Open Access works, our titles are available on a multitude of different platforms, and readers have multiple means of accessing them. Collecting and collating usage statistics for our books is challenging, and clearly any data reported will be at the lower end of ‘true’ usage, as we are unable to obtain data from all platforms.

During the year, we have collected book level usage data from the following sources: OBP’s Free Online PDF Reader; OBP’s Free HTML Reader; free ebook downloads from OBP; Google Play; and visitors to our titles hosted on Google Books, OpenEdition, WorldReader, OAPEN and the Classics Library. We are pleased to have introduced on our website detailed readership reports across these platforms at the level of individual titles. To find out more about the data we have been collecting, please visit our page on how we collect our readership statistics and if you'd like to know more about what we mean by usage data, you can read Lucy Barnes' latest blog post What We Talk About When We Talk About… Book Usage Data.

Annual Report 2019

Our Global Reach

This year we welcomed readers from 219 different countries and states confirming that our titles have worldwide reach. The United States, United Kingdom, India, Nigeria and South Africa are the top 5, followed by the Phillippines, Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia and Pakistan. We look forward to having an even bigger global impact in the years ahead.

Annual Report 2019

In our percentage of readership by continent, Europe is in first place with 38% of our total readership, followed by Africa and North America with 21% each and Asia with 18%.

Annual Report 2019

We would like to thank our readers for engaging with our books this year!

Annual Report 2019

New-Look Blog

All things must come to an end...and be replaced with something better!

This last month we have launched our new blog with a new and more user-friendly design where you can find all our previous posts, including posts this year on metrics, Open Access academic publishing, English and German Literature, international relations and language politics that we'd like to invite you to read!

To check out our new blog and all our new content, visit https://blogs.openbookpublishers.com/.

Annual Report 2019

OBP to Shrink our Carbon Footprint in 2020

In the forthcoming year we will publish a number of books about climate change, its impact on our world and the importance of sustainability – these include Earth 2020: An Insider’s Guide to a Rapidly Changing Planet (ed. Philippe D. Tortell); Living Earth Community: Multiple Ways of Being and Knowing (eds. Sam Mickey, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim) and What Works in Conservation 2020 (eds. William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Nancy Ockendon, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith).

Inspired by the work of our authors, next year we will be taking steps to shrink our carbon footprint and we will be blogging about it along the way, so keep an eye on our blog to find out more about what we learn and all we achieve throughout 2020!

Annual Report 2019

Thanks to Our Volunteers!

At OBP, we offer direct training placements in all aspects of Open Access publishing, free of charge. We provide placements to individuals, as part of university courses such as the MSt in Creative Writing at the University of Oxford, and to other Open Access publishers such as UGA Editions and Firenze University Press. However, we also welcome volunteers of different levels of skill and experience who want to work with us either at our Cambridge office or remotely.

This year we have had the pleasure of working along some great volunteers and we would like to take this opportunity to thank them for all their help and hard work - we strongly appreciated their support and assistance!

Elena Prat
Naveed Ashraf
Maddie Janjo
Annalena Lorenz
Robert Wilding
Theodore Martin
Natalie Ansell
Claudia Griffiths
Ryan Norman
Julie Linden
Elizabeth Lowe
Edwin Rosta
Ammara Naveed

If you or someone you know would like to have the opportunity to try a range of key publishing aspects, including marketing, editorial and text-formatting tasks in a non-corporate environment, please contact Alessandra Tosi.

Annual Report 2019

We Want to Hear from You!

We are very grateful for the support our member libraries give us, and we are keen to find out what more we could be doing in return. For this reason, we would like to invite you to take part in a short survey which will provide an opportunity for us to find out more about what you would like us to be doing for you. Your participation in this survey is completely voluntary and all of your responses are anonymous.

If you have any questions about this survey, or difficulty in accessing the site or completing the survey, please contact laura@openbookpublishers.com.

We would love to hear from all our librarians and know more about the ways they think we can improve!

And finally...

May the holiday season end the present year on a cheerful note and make way for a fresh and bright New Year!

OBP to Shrink our Carbon Footprint in 2020

‘What’s your argument, that we shouldn’t bother?’
OBP to Shrink our Carbon Footprint in 2020

This was the response of the UK's Green Party leader, Sian Berry, to a recent question from political journalist Andrew Neil: since China continues to pump carbon into the atmosphere, what is the point of people in the UK making changes to mitigate their impact on the climate?

Berry’s interview comes at the end of a year that has seen increasing amounts of noise about the issue of climate change. Protests by Extinction Rebellion, the skyrocketing profile of climate activist Greta Thunberg and increasingly dire headlines about melting polar ice and rising sea levels – we are hearing, louder and louder, a message of imminent catastrophe.

But at OBP we have been galvanised into action by something else. Next year we have the privilege of publishing a number of books about climate change, its impact on our world and the importance of sustainability – these include Earth 2020: An Insider’s Guide to a Rapidly Changing Planet (ed. Philippe D. Tortell); Living Earth Community: Multiple Ways of Being and Knowing (eds. Sam Mickey, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim) and What Works in Conservation 2020 (eds. William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Nancy Ockendon, Silviu O. Petrovan and Rebecca K. Smith). (These will, of course, all be freely available in Open Access editions.) Calm, measured and full of expert knowledge, they lay out very starkly the impact that humans are currently having on the world around us – but also the things we can do to avert disaster.

Climate change is happening. The data is only going in one direction. So what should we do?

Since we are a small company, it’s easy to think that we can’t make much difference – but this has never been OBP’s philosophy. Because we are small, we can be nimble, inventive and responsive to the circumstances around us: we can be an example by experimenting with different methods and showing others what can be achieved.

This has been our approach to Open Access publishing and this will be our approach to our environmental impact. Inspired by the work of our authors, in 2020 we will be taking steps to shrink our carbon footprint and we will be blogging about it along the way – sharing the difficulties we encounter and the solutions we discover to change our effect on the world around us.

It’s time to make a start. Watch this space.

De automatisering de-automatiseren; De-automating Automation

>> English below

Image by Nicki Varkevisser

Bijdrage aan de Spui25-bijeenkomst De roman en het geschreven woord in tijden van technologisering, ter gelegenheid van de verschijning van Maxim Februari’s laatste boek De onbetrouwbare verteller. (Meer van dit in mijn nieuwe boek Frictie: Ethiek in tijden van dataïsme, dat in mei 2020 verschijnt bij De Bezige Bij.)

‘See, in spite of all this omnipresent law enforcement, because we want to hear and taste and smell and feel, we can’t go very long without trying to talk about some art.’ Fred Moten

Ik wil beginnen met een vraag, om de stemming er een beetje in te krijgen. Antwoord er gewoon in gedachte op, het is misschien niet iets om meteen te delen. Wie is er zeker van dat zijn beroep in de komende jaren blijft bestaan en niet wordt weg-geautomatiseerd? Wie ziet zichzelf als bestand tegen robotisering en algoritmisering? Schrijvers? Docenten? Sorry, ik moet u teleurstellen. Ook rechters, artsen en chauffeurs zullen het zwaar hebben, en muzikanten en kunstenaars. Allen zullen uit de markt geconcurreerd worden door robots. Hebben we eindelijk tijd over om te lezen! Als we dat dan nog kunnen.

Dit is het ene verhaal dat steeds te horen is: de automatisering komt eraan en neemt alles over, of dat nu the best of times of the worst of times oplevert. Parallel daaraan klinkt echter ook een ander verhaal steeds luider. Automatisering, heet het dan, is grotendeels bedrog. Het gevaar ervan is zwaar overdreven, want robots kunnen welbeschouwd niet eens een vork vasthouden, algoritmes zijn dommekrachten die sturing nodig hebben en kunstmatige intelligentie kan misschien goed schaken, maar een simpel gesprekje voeren, ho maar. Kortom, hoe vergevorderd de automatisering al is wordt overschat en de meeste beweringen over wat ze al kan zijn ronduit nep. In plaats van AI – artificial intelligence – is er eerder sprake van Fake I of fauxtomation (naar Astra Taylor).

Een inmiddels bekend voorbeeld is de kwestie van contentmoderatie: het schoonhouden van het internet door geweld, porno en vrouwentepels daarvan te verwijderen. Uit talloze artikelen, getuigenissen en een documentaire als The Cleaners, blijkt dat dat niet wordt gedaan door slimme algoritmes, zoals bedrijven als Facebook en Google graag doen geloven, maar door (veelal jonge) mensen. In ware contentmoderatie-fabrieken checken zij meldingen van berichten op Facebook, foto’s op Instagram of filmpjes op YouTube die als ongepast zijn gerapporteerd, zoals dat heet. In een lange stroom trekken de berichten aan het oog van de moderator voorbij, die binnen een vloek en zucht moet beslissen of hier de regels worden overtreden. Naast de gewone scheldpartijen en bedreigingen behoren politieke satire, kinderporno, onthoofdingen door terroristen en oorlogsmisdaden opgenomen door burgerjournalisten min of meer tot de orde van de dag. Duizenden berichten per dag verwerken zij, blij zijn dat ze werk hebben, click delete, click accept, click delete delete delete. Niks automatisering.

Hoewel, deze twee verhalen – van automatisering en de ontmaskering ervan als mensenwerk – liggen misschien toch minder ver van elkaar af dan het lijkt. Automatisering vindt wel degelijk plaats – niet omdat robots de wereld overnemen, maar omdat de mens onder invloed van technologie automatiseert. De verpleegster die moet werken op het ritme van de minuut, zal die zich niet een soort robot voelen? De Uber-chauffeur wiens bestaan gedicteerd wordt door een app, is dat niet de werkelijke ‘zelfrijdende auto’?

Ik hoorde onlangs iemand vertellen hoe dit in de sociologie de diagnose ‘beleidsvervreemding’ krijgt. Bij beleidsvervreemding ontkoppelt de psyche van de professional zich van wat hij aan het doen is en – belangrijk – ook van het waarom. Hij voert een taak uit, als een soort algoritme.

Mensen die op de automatische piloot moeten werken, raken vervreemd, dat wist Marx al. Maar vervreemding heeft ook een positieve kant. Zo schrijft Sara Ahmed over vervreemding dat ze leergierig is: ‘je leert nu eenmaal meer over je wensen als die niet zijn wat je wenst. We kunnen vervreemding begrijpen als verwondering; we verwonderen ons over dingen; we verbazen ons over hun samenstelling.’ (Living a Feminist Life)

Vervreemding is in deze zin de eerste stap naar verandering. Ze doet je eerst halt houden, en zet je vervolgens in beweging. Een nieuwe beweging, de andere kant op. Deze vervreemding, en nu kom ik eindelijk bij de literatuur, is de-automatisering te noemen. Dat heb ik natuurlijk niet zelf bedacht. De-automatiseren, vervreemden, is hoe Viktor Sjklovski, de Russische formalist, de werking van literatuur omschrijft. Zo’n honderd jaar geleden, in de jaren tien van de twintigste eeuw, observeerde hij hoe we door automatisering niet meer echt waarnemen, en bij uitbreiding niet meer echt denken, liefhebben, leven. En om uit die waas te breken, moet de kunst dus waarneming, en ja, ook het leven, de-automatiseren.

Uiteraard had Sjklovski het niet over de automatisering door algoritmes en robots, maar over die van het moderne leven. Hij schrijft bijvoorbeeld: ‘Zo gaat het leven verloren, verdwijnend in het niets. De automatisering slokt de dingen op, je kleren, je meubels, je vrouw en je angst voor oorlog.’

Tegenwoordig wordt automatisering vooral ingezet om de angst voor oorlog juist aan te wakkeren, vrees ik. Maar wat zij nu ook nog steeds doet is ons meesleuren in een stroom die geen tijd laat om daadwerkelijk waar te nemen, te denken, liefhebben, leven. Een net van zogeheten frictionless design doet je van app naar slimme meter naar beveiligingscamera bewegen, zodat je geen moment aan je eigen automatisering ontsnapt. Steeds alomtegenwoordiger, is deze technologie tegelijk steeds onzichtbaarder. Ook daarom beneemt automatisering je de waarneming: het is de bedoeling dat je haar niet ziet, er niet te veel aandacht aan besteedt, dat de techniek naar de achtergrond verdwijnt en het vanzelfsprekende decor gaat vormen van het hele leven.

Over het hele leven gesproken. Met een verwijzing naar Tolstoj schrijft Sjklovski: ‘Als het hele ingewikkelde leven van velen zich onbewust afspeelt, dan is het alsof dit leven er nooit geweest is.’ Dan is niet alleen het werk, maar ook de rest van de mens weg-geautomatiseerd.

Wat een drama! Maar gelukkig is daar het woord. De automatisering de-automatiseren, zoals de literatuur doet, werkt als vervreemding die verwondert – met het woord van Sjklovski: ostranenie. Daarmee is ze een soort ethische hefboom, die ons uit de woekerende beleidsvervreemding wakker schudt. Ze is als frictie in een frictieloze wereld, die je halt doet houden, en dan weer in beweging brengt, mogelijkerwijs de andere kant op.

Dat kan door verhalen te ontmaskeren, zoals de hoogmoedige automatiseringsfantasieën over robots en singularity, waarachter een vuile werkelijkheid schuilgaat. Maar op zich kan de journalistiek dat ook. Specifiek literaire taal doet echter nog iets anders. Ik wil twee voorbeelden van Sjklovski noemen. Zo hecht hij veel waarde aan de stijlfiguur van het parallellisme. Het parallellisme laat zien ‘dat iets niet met iets anders samenvalt terwijl het er toch gelijk aan is.’ Met andere woorden, in het parallellisme kan iets tegelijkertijd twee verschillende dingen zijn: zichzelf en niet-zichzelf, hetzelfde en verschillend, aanwezig en afwezig. The best of times en the worst of times. Het doet dus precies dat wat in de technologie – de grote gelijkmaker – niet mag of kan.

Het tweede voorbeeld heeft te maken met de hang van de literatuur naar het particuliere en het specifieke. Technologie en automatisering drijven op kwantificatie, reductionisme en categorisering. Vooral die laatste is de bureaucratische natte droom van de Totale Dataficatie. Maar categorieën zijn per definitie een benadering, een vak voor veel verschillend spul. De categorieën van de technologie kunnen nog zo verfijnd zijn, de specificiteit van een woord of beeld van de schrijver is van een totaal andere orde. En daarom, aldus Sjklovski, gaat het erom de categorieën omver te werpen, en de stoel weer los te rukken uit het begrip meubel.

De-automating Automation

Talk held at the Spui25 event The Novel and the Written Word in Technological Times, celebrating the publication of Maxim Februari’s latest book De onbetrouwbare verteller (The Unreliable Narrator). More on this topic in my upcoming book on Friction: Ethics in Times of Dataism (in Dutch), May 2020, De Bezige Bij.

‘See, in spite of all this omnipresent law enforcement, because we want to hear and taste and smell and feel, we can’t go very long without trying to talk about some art.’ Fred Moten

I’d like to start with a question, just to get in the mood. You may answer in silence – it might not be something to share right away. Here goes: Who is sure that their profession will continue to exist in the years to come and will not succumb to automation? Who believes themselves to be resistant to robotization and algorithmization? Writers? Teachers? Sorry, I have to disappoint you. Judges, doctors, and drivers will also have a hard time, as will musicians and artists. All of them will be outrivaled by robots. Well, then finally we’ll have time to read (if we still can).

This is the one story that can be heard all the time: automation is coming and will take over everything, whether it’s for the best of times or for the worst of times. At the same time, however, another story is resounding louder and louder. Automation, this story says, is largely a deception. Its danger is greatly exaggerated: robots can’t even handle a fork, algorithms are mindless drudges that crave control, and while artificial intelligence might be excellent at playing chess, having a simple conversation is already one step too far. In short, the level of automation is overestimated and most claims about what it can do are simply false. Instead of AI – artificial intelligence – we should rather talk of Fake I or fauxtomation (after Astra Taylor).

A well-known example is the question of content moderation: keeping the internet clean by removing violence, porn and women’s nipples. Numerous articles, testimonies, and a documentary such as The Cleaners, show that this work is not done by smart algorithms, as companies like Facebook and Google would have us believe, but by (mostly young) people. Operating from veritable content moderation factories they check messages on Facebook, photos on Instagram or videos on YouTube that have been reported as ‘inappropriate’. In an endless stream, the messages pass by on the moderator’s screen, who has to decide whether the rules are violated in the blink of an eye. Political satire, child pornography, decapitations by terrorists and war crimes recorded by civilian journalists are more or less commonplace, next to the usual insults and threats. Processing thousands of messages a day, happy to even have a job, they click delete, click accept, click delete delete delete. No automation here.

These two stories – of automation and of its exposé as work done by humans – may not be as far apart as they seem. Automation does take place – not because robots take over the world, but because humans themselves automate under the influence of technology. The nurse who has to work to the beat of the minute, won’t they feel like a robot? The Uber driver whose existence is dictated by an app, aren’t they the real ‘self-driving car’?

I recently heard someone tell how in sociology this is diagnosed as ‘policy alienation’. Policy alienation disconnects the professional’s psyche from what they are doing and – importantly – from the why. They perform a task, as a kind of algorithm.

People who have to work on autopilot become alienated, as Marx already knew. But alienation also has a positive side. Sara Ahmed describes alienation as studious: ‘you learn more about wishes when they are not what you wish for. We can think of alienation then as wonder: we wonder about things; we marvel at their assembly.’ (Living a Feminist Life)

In this sense, alienation is the first step towards change. At first, it makes you stop – and then it gets you moving. A new movement, heading in a different direction. This alienation, and now I’m finally coming to literature, is also called de-automation. I didn’t think of that myself. De-automation and alienation are how Viktor Shklovsky, the Russian formalist, describes the effect of literature (in English: de-familiarization). About a hundred years ago, in the 1910s, he observed how because of automation we no longer really look, and by extension, no longer really think, love, and live. In order to break out of this mist, art has to de-familiarize or de-automate perception, and yes, also life.

Of course, Shklovsky was not talking about automation by algorithms and robots, but about modern life. He writes, for instance, in ‘Art as Technique’: ‘Life is reckoned as nothing. Automation devours work, clothes, furniture, one’s wife, and the fear of war.’

Nowadays, automation is mainly used to stir up the fear of war, I’m afraid. But it still devours us, leaving no time to actually look, think, love, live. A network of so-called frictionless design lets us move from one app to the next smart appliance to another security camera, allowing no escape from your own automation. Increasingly omnipresent, this technology is at the same time increasingly invisible. That’s another reason why automation robs you of perception: the intention is precisely not to be seen, to not attract too much attention, to disappear into the background and become the natural backdrop for your whole life.

Talking about whole lives. With a reference to Tolstoy, Shklovsky writes: ‘If the whole complex lives of many take place unconsciously, it will be as if their lives had never been’. Then, not just work but all the rest of human life will be automated away, too.

So dramatic! Fortunately, art comes to the rescue. De-automation, as literature does, can work as alienation-as-wonder -as-defamiliarization – with the word Shklovsky uses: ostranenie. It turns de-automation into a kind of ethical lever that might awaken us from the proliferation of policy alienation. It provides friction in a frictionless world, making you stop, and then move again, possibly in another direction.

How would this actually work? It can be done by exposing certain stories, such as the haughty automation fantasies about robots and singularity that hide a dirty reality. But journalism could do this too. Literary language, specifically, does something else. I would like to mention two of Shklovsky’s examples. First, he attaches great importance to the technique of parallelism. A parallelism shows ‘that something does not coincide with something else, even though they are of the same kind’. In other words, in parallelism, something can be two different things at the same time: itself and not itself, the same and different, present and absent. The best of times and the worst of times. It does exactly what technology – the great equalizer – cannot or must not do.

The second example has to do with the tendency of literature to be particular and specific. Technology and automation rely on quantification, reductionism, and categorization. The latter, in particular, is like a bureaucratic wet dream of Total Datafication. But categories are by definition an approximation, a container that can hold a lot of different stuff. However refined the categories may be, the specificity of a writer’s words or images is something completely different. And that’s why, according to Shklovsky, we have but one task: to overthrow all categories and to tear the chair out of the concept of furniture again.

Translated with help from www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

The Top Ten Sounding Out! Posts of 2019!

For your end-of-the year reading pleasure, here are the Top Ten Posts of 2019 (according to views as of 12/4/19). Visit this brilliance today–and often! Listen out for us in 2020!

10). Charles Mingus, Rotary Perception, and the “Fables of Faubus”

Earl Brooks

Jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus’s infamous protest song “Fables of Faubus,” (1959) channeled the anger and frustration of the Black community in response to the staunch racism of Orval Faubus, Governor of Arkansas, who refused to acknowledge the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to support school integration in the 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education. Faubus infamously used the Arkansas National Guard to prevent Black students from attending Little Rock Central High School. The visual imagery of “The Little Rock Nine” walking to school, bombarded by riotous mobs and surrounded by cameras and military escorts, remains permanently seared into the American collective memory of the Civil Rights Movement.

What makes the imagery of “The Little Rock Nine” so sonically distinctive is the contrast between the silent procession of the students and the loud and intimidating screams from the white racist protestors. When images contain explicit visual references to particular sounds, there is an inescapable cognitive referent that allows one to experience that sound through the vehicle of one’s “sonic imagination”–or the mechanism that allows us to “hear” a song in our heads even when there is only silence. Listening involves an active–not passive–engagement with sounds real and imagined. In the same vein as comic books, which rely on visual sound-cues to enhance the experience of the text, the optical power of “The Little Rock Nine” invites viewers to process both the visual and aural data presented by the image. In other words, the image is empowered by its multimodality. When combined with related source material, such as “Fables,” we stand to gain a greater sense of its meanings and an awareness of why sound, especially music, is critical to the recording, or archiving of the kinds of lived experiences that exceed easy translation. [Click here to read the full piece!]


9). Flâneuse>La caminanta

Amanda Gutiérrez

Flâneuse>La caminanta is a video soundwalk project, edited as a virtual reality (VR) interactive environment that I created using a 360-degree camera to document participants’ journeys. Its title emphasizes a missing word in the French and Spanish languages for women as wanderers, a gap that also represents the lack of inclusive public spaces that allow female-identifying and non-conforming bodies safe passage and co-existence. The VR environment exposes the perspective of four women of color who navigate urban landscapes in Mexico City, Abu Dhabi, Manhattan and Brooklyn. The participants selected their own locations, building from places that have a personal meaning or memory in their everyday journeys.

This post discusses Flâneuse>La caminanta, its influences, previous iterations, and use of the methodology of the soundwalk as an intervention exposing the dangers inherent in public space for women of color.  To begin, Flâneuse>La caminanta is the virtual reality iteration of my previous film essay and photo series, Walking in Lightness.   Walking in Lightness departs from my experience walking in the neighborhood of Sunset Park, Brooklyn. The soundscapes I recorded during soundwalks became a pivotal medium for offering subtle observations of a woman’s cultural identity, recording my interactions and tracing a psychogeographic path as the camera navigates urban spaces. [Click here to read the full piece!]


Screenshot (38)

8. What is a Voice?

Alexis Deighton MacIntyre

What is a voice, and what does it mean to voice?

Definitions of the voice may be pragmatic: working titles that depend in part on their institutional basis within ethnomusicology, literature, or psychoacoustics, for example.

Or, to take another strategy, voice is given by an impartial biological framework, a respiratory-laryngeal-oral assembly line. Its product, an acoustic signal, is transmitted via material vibration to an ear, and then a brain. The mind of a listener is this system’s endpoint. Although this functional description may smack of scientific reductionism, the otolaryngeal voice often stands in for embodiment in humanist discourse. [Click here to read the full piece!]


7). Everyone’s Going to the Rumba: Trap Latino and the Cuban Internet

Mike Levine

Trap Latino has grown popular in Cuba over the past few years. Listen to the speakers blaring from a young passerby’s cellphone on Calle G, or scan through the latest digital edition of el paquete semanal (the weekly package), and you are bound to hear the genre’s trademark 808 bass boom in full effect. The style however, is almost entirely absent from state radio, television, and concert venues. To the Cuban state (and many Cubans), the supposed musical and lyrical values expressed in the music are unacceptable for public consumption. Like reggaetón a decade before, the reputation of Trap Latino (and especially the homegrown version, Trap Cubano) intersects with contemporary debates regarding the future of Cuba’s national project. For many of its fans however, the style’s ability to challenge the narratives of the Cuban state is precisely what makes Trap Latino so appealing.

In an article published last year by Granma (Cuba’s official, state-run media source), Havana-based journalist Guillermo Carmona positions Trap Latino artists like Bad Bunny and Bryant Myers as a negative influence on Cuba’s youth, claiming the music sneaks its way into the ears of unsuspecting Cuban youth via the illicit channels of Cuba’s underground internet. With lyrics that celebrate the drug trade and treat women as “slot machines,” coupled with a preponderance of sound effects instead of “music notes,” Carmona considers Trap Latino aggressive, dangerous, and perhaps most perniciously of all, irredeemably foreign. [Click here to read the full piece!]


6. Cardi B: Bringing the Cold and Sexy to Hip Hop

Ashley Luthers

“Ran down on that bitch twice” was all I heard in this tight, dark basement filled with black and brown bodies, sweat dripping everywhere from everyone. Girls danced all over, yelling and shouting lyrics as they clapped and pointed along to the fast, upbeat rhythm of the song, feeling their own sensations and pleasure from the vibe, and rapping with the catchiness of the repeated phrase, “Ran down on that bitch twice!” As everyone was jumping, the space around me shook because there was so much body movement and flow; it was lit. This wasn’t the first time I heard Cardi B, but dancing along to her song “Foreva” was definitely the first I remember hearing her. Since that dark basement party, I realized that the attitude and energy Cardi B invokes through her raps and lyrics is addicting.

Listening repeatedly to “Foreva,” and the rest of her debut mixtape Gangsta Bitch Music Vol.1, has attuned me to Cardi B as a stone cold, gangster bitch: someone who is fearless, tough on the outside and inside. She doesn’t hesitate; she doesn’t bluff. She gets straight to the point and lets you know that she will fuck you up if and when necessary. A ‘G’ she is, as some would say when describing a person who shows no fear and is always hustling—except that someone is imagined as a black male from the so-called ‘hood who affiliates with drugs, gangs, etc. The music itself reflects this gangster feel, through the hard trap sounds and beats in every track. Trap music as a style and subset of Hip-Hop, and arguably a genre on its own, originated in Atlanta, and has over time become mainstream all across the U.S. specifically within the Northeast region. Within Cardi’s performed, stone cold bitch lyrical persona, she embodies an aggressive femme sexuality, a racialized femme hunger for sex with black men, and an emotional depth that makes her endearing to listeners. Her embodiment of this multiplicity—stone cold attitude, femme sexual thirst, and emotional complexity—can be heard in her music, through the explosion of beats, rhythms, and lyrics that keep listeners hooked to the sound of her self-image. In other words, Cardi B’s sonic and lyrical movements work in tandem with her audio-visual construction of black, Caribbean, Bronx femme desire. [Read the full piece here!]


5). On the Poetics of Balloon Music: Sounding Air, Body, and Latex (Part One)

Carlo Patrão

I see them in the streets and in the subway, at dollar stores, hospital rooms, and parties. I see them silently dangling from electrical cables and tethered to branches of trees. Balloons are ghost-like entities floating through the cracks of places and memories. They are part of our rituals of loss, celebration and apology. Yet, they are also part of larger systems, weather sciences, warfare and surveillance technologies, colonialist forces and the casual UFO conspiracy theory. For a child, the ephemeral life of the balloon contrasts with the joy of its bright colors and squeaky sounds. Psychologists encourage the use of the balloon as an analogy for death, while astronomers use it as a representation for the cosmological inflation of the universe. In between metaphors of beginning and end, the balloon enables dialogues about air, breath, levity, and vibration.

The philosopher Luce Irigaray argues that Western thought has forgotten air despite being founded on it. “Air does not show itself. As such, it escapes appearing as (a) being. It allows itself to be forgotten,” writes Irigaray. Air is confused with absence because it “never takes place in the mode of an ‘entry into presence.’” Gaston Bachelard, in Air and Dreams, calls for a philosophy of poetic imagination that grows out of air’s movement and fluidity. For Bachelard, an aerial imagination brings forth a sense of the sonorous, of transparency and mobility. In this article, I propose exploring the balloon as a sonic device that turns our attention to the element of air and opens space for musical practices outside classical traditions. Here, the balloon is defined broadly as an envelope for air, breath, and lighter-than-air gases, including toy balloons, weather balloons, hydrogen and hot-air balloons. [Read the full piece here!]


4). Hearing Change in the Chocolate City:  Soundwalking as Black Feminist Method

Allie Martin

In July 2018 I visited Oxford, Mississippi for the first time, to attend a workshop on conducting oral histories.  Upon walking with a friend back to our accommodations on the University of Mississippi campus, we heard a voice calling to us from far away, up a hill somewhere.  It was a catcalling voice—that much I definitely recognized—but I also felt sure that I heard the word “nigger.”  My friend, who is also a black woman, heard the taunting sounds of the voice but not that word specifically.  Herein lies one of the difficulties of black womanhood: I was unable to distinguish which of my two most prominent identity markers (blackness and womanhood) the speaker was using to harm me in that moment.  I found it ironic that I came to Mississippi to learn best practices for listening to people’s stories, but could not hear my own story, could not say for sure what had happened to me.

In the time since that visit, I have come to embrace the speculative sonic ephemerality of black womanhood and utilize it on my soundwalks.  Soundwalks are a popular method for understanding the everyday sonic life of a place.  Reminiscent of Michel de Certeau’s “Walking in the City,” soundwalks offer the kind of embodied experience missing from other more static soundscape recordings. I argue here that soundwalks can operate as black feminist method, precisely because they allow me to center the complex, incomplete sonorities of black womanhood, and they are enough in their incompleteness.  One of our foremost thinkers on black feminism, Patricia Hill Collins, has argued that black women’s knowledge is subjugated (1990).  I understand this to mean that my knowledge is tainted somehow, too specialized or not specialized enough, and not considered fit for application by a broader audience.  Soundwalks as method, though, rely on my own subjugated knowledge.  What did I hear?  Black feminism centers and humanizes black women, and I utilize soundwalks to humanize myself in a soundscape that would otherwise disregard my sonic perceptions in favor of white hearing as the default standard of sound. [Read the full piece here!]


3). Can’t Nobody Tell Me Nothin: Respectability and The Produced Voice in Lil Nas X’s “Old Town Road”

Justin Burton

t’s been ten weeks now that we’ve all been kicking back in our Wranglers. allowing Lil Nas X’s infectious twang in “Old Town Road” to shower us in yeehaw goodness from its perch atop the Billboard Hot 100. Entrenched as it is on the pop chart, though, “Old Town Road”’s relationship to Billboard got off to a shaky start, first landing on the Hot Country Songs list only to be removed when the publication determined the hit “does not embrace enough elements of today’s country music to chart in its current version.” There’s a lot to unpack in a statement like that, and folks have been unpacking it quite consistently, especially in relation to notions of genre and race (in addition to Matthew Morrison’s recommended reads, I’d add Karl Hagstrom-Miller’s Segregating Sound, which traces the roots of segregated music markets). Using the context of that ongoing discussion about genre and race, I’m listening here to a specific moment in “Old Town Road”— the line “can’t nobody tell me nothin”—and the way it changes from the original version to the Billy Ray Cyrus remix. Lil Nas X uses the sound of his voice in this moment to savvily leverage his collaboration with a country music icon, and by doing so subtly drawing out the respectability politics underlying Billboard’s racialized genre categorization of his song. [Read the full piece here!]


2). TiK ToK: Post-Crash Party Pop, Compulsory Presentism and the 2008 Financial Collapse

Dan DiPiero

As pundits increasingly speculate about the likelihood and character of another recession, I’m thinking about the one from which we’re still recovering. Specifically, I’m thinking about a certain strain of American pop music—or a certain sentiment within pop music—that it seems to me accelerated and concentrated just after the 2008 financial collapse. This strain, which obviously co-existed with many other developments in popular music at the time, takes party songs and adds to them two interconnected narrative elements: on the one hand, partying is cranked up, escalated in one or multiple ways, moving the music beyond a party anthem and into something new. On the other hand, the rationale for such a move consistently derives from an attitude of compulsory presentism, in which the future is characterized as unknown, irrelevant, or is otherwise disavowed.

In the American context, the popular (and, I argue, misguided) take on the music of the great recession is that we didn’t have any—in other words, because no one was directly singing about the crisis, there was no music that responded to it. But this is an extremely limited way of understanding how music and socio-political life interact. In this post, I consider specifically American notions of mainstream party culture to argue that the strain of party music described above and below is the music of the crash, not because it literally speaks about it but because it reflects a certain attitude expressed and experienced by those at the front of both popular music listening at the time and the collapse itself: the graduating classes of 2008-2012. [Click Here to read Full Piece!]


1). The Sound of Feminist Snap, or Why I Interrupted the 2018 SEM Business Meeting

Alex W. Rodriguez 

I begin this essay with an apology, addressed to the Society for Ethnomusicology President Gregory Barz:

I am sorry that I interrupted your opening remarks at least year’s SEM Business meeting.  In the moment that I chose to make my intervention, I underestimated the pain that it has clearly caused you. Furthermore, I have come to realize that it was unskillful of me to locate my frustration and anger with you as an individual.  The affective release of my voice in that moment could have been better directed towards positive change in a time of great need for many of us. I fully intend to work towards doing better in the months to come, urging anyone who occupies the office of President of this organization to use the power and standing inherent in this position office to take direct steps to address the harms many of its members are experiencing.

Because my intervention arose so quickly and unpredictably—for readers outside of the Society for Ethnomusicology who may not know, I stood up and yelled “You’re a hypocrite!” then left the meeting—it seems worthwhile to explore my actions in a more thoughtful space of written discourse. I want to clarify that my sonic interruption was not premeditated; as I explain below, it arose out of a deep anger and longing for justice. As SEM 2019 convenes in November in Bloomington, Indiana on November 7th, I hope that my disruptive event can be better understood as a call to collective inquiry into the structural factors that constrain our Society from functioning in a healthy way. [Read the Full piece here!]


Featured Image: “Write on!” by J. Stoever

tape reelREWIND! . . .If you liked this post, you may also dig:

The Top Ten Sounding Out! Posts of 2018!

The Top Ten Sounding Out! Posts of 2017!

The Top Ten Sounding Out! Posts of 2016!

The Top Ten Sounding Out! Posts of 2015!

SO! Podcast #80: Refugee Realities Miniseries

Welcome to Next Gen sound studies! Here, you will be treated to the future. . . today! In this series, we will share excellent work from undergraduates, along with the pedagogy that inspired them. You’ll read voice biographies (Kaitlyn Liu’s “My Voice, or On Not Staying Quiet,”) check out blog assignments (David Lee’s “Mukbang Cooks, Chews, and Heals”), listen to podcasts, and read detailed histories that will inspire and invigorate. Bet.  –JS

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD: SO! Podcast #80: Refugee Realities Miniseries




Join hosts Amanda Patton, Ahmad Frahmand, Melvin Mora Rangel, and Brad Joseph as they interview local refugees and organizations in an attempt to learn what brings refugees seeking asylum to Charlottesville, Virginia. This podcast explores the personal experiences of refugees as they navigate the institutional realities of Charlottesville. It probes the experience of assimilation asking if it is easier to assimilate as a second generation refugee? And asks about the unique challenges that second generation refugees face. Finally, the podcast concludes by sharing resources available for refugees in Charlottesville and how listeners can aid the cause.

We are delighted to host this podcast at Sounding Out! and hope that you enjoy this excellent piece.

Amanda Patton, Ahmad Frahmand, Melvin Mora Rangel, and Brad Joseph authored this podcast series as a project in Steph Ceraso’s amazing “Writing With Sound” class.

tape-reelREWIND! . . .If you liked this post, you may also dig:

SO! Podcast #79: Behind the Podcast: deconstructing scenes from AFRI0550, African American Health Activism – Nic John Ramos and Laura Garbles

A Manifesto, or Sounding Out!’s 51st Podcast!!! – Aaron Trammell

Mukbang Cooks, Chews, and Heals – David Lee

Sabinet – Comprendre le fonctionnement de l’industrie de l’information en Afrique


De nos jours, les sites web constituent des supports importants pour la diffusion d’information. Les entreprises s’attèlent à donner une visibilité à leurs produits. Les plateformes sont les lieux où les compagnies proposent une variété de produits. L’industrie de l’information en Afrique dans leur conversion au numérique utilise des plateformes pour proposer des services. C’est l’exemple de Sabinet qui est une plateforme hybride qui publie des revues africaines en ligne depuis 2001 (Sabinet, 2019). Elle commercialise trois Produits:

  • Service bibliothécaire: Catalogage – l’interconnexion – gestion des bibliothèques, etc.  
  • Service d’information: 500 revues en ligne – 150 000 articles spécialisées de recherche complétée, de thèses & de Mémoires – Articles de médias et textes législatifs, etc.
  • Service de numérisation: Du scannage à la gestion des données.

La collection est composée de 10 suivantes disciplines: Business and Finance, Education, Labour, Law, Medicine and Health, Science – Technology and Agriculture, Religion, Social Sciences and Humanities et Juta’s Law Journals (Sabinet, (c), 2019).

Notre objectif dans ce travail est de présenter le fonctionnement de Sabinet en suivant les quatre principaux éléments de critères d’évaluations pour les ressources électroniques sur le Web de The Charleston Advisor (2019) (Contenu, Tarif, Options du contrat / caractéristiques, Possibilité de recherche) (The Charleston Advisor, 2019).

Nous allons découvrir le contenu de Sabinet en présentant dans un premier temps, le service bibliothécaire, le service d’information et le service de numérisation. Dans un deuxième temps, nous indiquons les dispositions contractuelles notamment, les dispositions relatives aux prêts entre bibliothèques, redistribution des informations, ou autres questions particulières qui accompagnent les différents services que Sabinet offre à ses clients. Notamment l’interface utilisateur et le moteur de recherche ainsi que quelles conditions d’accès aux produits.

1 – Présentation de Sabinet

Sabinet est une entreprise de l’industrie de l’information en Afrique du Sud. Sa mission est de faciliter l’accès à l’information et de faire en sorte que les bibliothèques en Afrique. La compagnie fonctionne par actionnariat (Institutions 49%, Personnel 37%, Fiducie 9%, Particuliers 5%). Le conseil d’administration est composé de 10 membres et une équipe de gestion de 8 membres. 213 éditeurs issus de 12 pays publient 500 revues (350 000 articles). De ses 500 revues, 164 sont en accès libre, 336 revues sont accédées par souscription (Sabinet, (b), 2019).

Nombre de revues par pays

Pays Nombre de revues Pays Nombre de revues Total Publishers
1-Nigeria 8 8-South Africa 184  
2-Tanzania 5 9-Lesotho 1
3-Malawi 4 10-Namibia 2
4-Kenya 1 11Ethiopia 2
5-Zambia 1 12-Egypt 2
6-Botswana 3 X X
Total 22   191 213




L’un des services que propose Sabinet à ses clients est la gestion des bibliothèques. Ce qui lui permet le catalogage et l’interconnexion.

Services aux bibliothèques

Sabinet fournit une variété de services à tous les types de bibliothèques. Elle offre le catalogage et l’acquisition de l’information pour les bibliothèques pour simplifier et soutenir leur processus de développement de leurs collections. Sabinet propose des services aux bibliothèques incluant l’interconnexion et les systèmes de gestion des bibliothèques. Elle procure des plateformes de collaboration de ressources entre les bibliothèques. Un service de partage de ressources basé sur le Web pour les bibliothèques de l’Afrique australe, «the ReQuest interlending service» facilite l’accès aux ressources hébergées par les bibliothèques, en permettant l’emprunt et le prêt entre les institutions. Le prêt inter-bibliothèque «WorldShare» d’OCLC relie les utilisateurs aux collections de milliers de bibliothèques via le plus grand réseau de prêts inter-bibliothèques au monde. Sabinet est un site de partage de documents d’échange d’articles. Elle fournit un emplacement unique et sécurisé où les bibliothèques de prêt du monde entier peuvent placer les documents. Hormis le service aux bibliothèques, Sabinet gère également un service d’information dans lequel les éditeurs peuvent publier leurs revues.

Services d’information

            Sabinet offre des revues en ligne provenant ou se rapportant à l’Afrique. Ce service est l’une des collections les plus complètes et consultables en ligne en texte intégral. Elle contient du contenu juridique sud-africain, ainsi qu’un service d’archivage des médias (SA Media). SA Media est un service de recherche de nouvelles et de coupures de presse qui couvre rétrospectivement les principales publications en Afrique du Sud, de 1978 à nos jours. La collection de presses SA Media comprend plus de 4,5 millions d’articles. Avec une moyenne de 2 500 nouveaux articles ajoutés chaque semaine, SA Media est un outil de recherche qui donne accès aux publications traditionnelles locales (Sabinet, (f) 2019).


Nombre Disciplines OA N S T Total
1 Social Sciences and Humanities 37 122 0 0 159
2 Science Technology & Agriculture 28 78 0 0 106
3 Medicine and Health 16 70 0 0 86
4 Business and Finance 14 75 0 0 89
5 African Journal Archive 127 54 0 0 181
6 Law 17 38 0 0 55
7 Labour 6 14 0 0 20
8 Religion 5 26 0 0 31
9 Education 3 13 0 0 16
10 Juta’s Law Journals 0 16 0 0 16
  Total 253 506 0 0 759

La collection de Sabinet est composée de 10 disciplines. Les champs de African Journal Archive (181) et de (Social Sciences and Humanities (159)) arrivent en tête du nombre des catégories de sujet et sont toutes évalués par les pairs (peer reviews). Sabinet s’adresse spécifiquement aux chercheurs et aux bibliothèques. Cette compagnie soutient les écoles secondaires et primaires à travers des dons de livres spécialisés. Dans ce contexte, Sabinet propose de numériser les documents papier des différentes institutions ou compagnies pour leur donner une visibilité en ligne.


Sabinet offre un service de numérisation personnalisé pour les besoins des bibliothèques. L’équipe chargée de la numérisation dispose d’un équipement de pointe qui leur permet de créer des répliques électroniques parfaites du matériel d’origine. Environ 13 000 pages A4 détachées ainsi que 1 200 pages liées peuvent être numérisées quotidiennement (Sabinet, (h) 2019). Sabinet dispose d’un système (CONTENTdm®) qui donne accès aux collections numériques sur le Web, plus rapidement. Il peut gérer tout format – archives d’histoire locale, journaux, livres, cartes, bibliothèques de diapositives ou audio / vidéo.  Ce système fournit une solution complète pour les archives historique, les bibliothèques de diapositives, les articles «nés-numériques», les journaux, les livres, les lettres, les cartes, les thèses et les dissertations électroniques et les fichiers audio / vidéo. Il permet l’interopérabilité. Autrement dit, il est compatible avec les systèmes existants, locaux, régionaux, nationaux et internationaux. Il est compatible aux normes ISO, notamment : Unicode, Z39.50, Dublin Core®, XML, JPEG2000, etc. (Sabinet, (i) 2019).

Ces services ont pour objectif de fournir et de garantir les meilleures conditions de travail pour les usagers. Les dispositions techniques de navigation et d’accès à la documentation sont proposées à tous les souscripteurs qui souhaitent travailler avec Sabinet.

2 – Dispositions contractuelles

La plateforme Sabinet est hybride, certains articles sont payants. L’accès aux documents payants est soit par abonnement soit directement (open accès). Pour gérer le flux de clients, une souscription avec un «username» et un mot de passe sont exigés. Il y a un panier dans lequel tout souscripteur peut collectionner les articles qu’il souhaite acheter (Sabinet (e), 2019). Le système de fonctionnement de Sabinet est entièrement basé sur des logiciels et des technologies Open Source. Par exemple, Counter fournit le code de pratique qui permet aux éditeurs et aux fournisseurs de signaler l’utilisation de leurs ressources électroniques de manière cohérente. Cela permet aux bibliothèques de comparer les données reçues de différents éditeurs et de fournisseurs. Counter maintient les registres de conformité qui répertorient les éditeurs et les fournisseurs qui ont passé une vérification indépendante de leurs statistiques d’utilisation.

EZproxy est un autre outil qui est installé sur un serveur. Il sert d’intermédiaire entre l’usager et le fournisseur de ressources numériques. L’adresse du serveur sur lequel est installé EZproxy est déclarée auprès des fournisseurs de contenus qui autorisent alors l’accès à tout utilisateur arrivant depuis ce serveur. L’authentification est confiée à l’établissement responsable d’EZproxy, via un annuaire LDAP. EZproxy fonctionne en modifiant dynamiquement les URL dans les pages Web fournies par le fournisseur. Il configure l’accès pour que l’interaction et l’engagement des utilisateurs avec la bibliothèque soient les mêmes, où qu’ils se trouvent et quand ils choisissent de travailler.

 Le processus d’installation est sécurisé pour les utilisateurs, il n’est pas nécessaire pour les utilisateurs de modifier les paramètres de leur navigateur ou de reconfigurer leur PC. L’utilisateur se connecte au contenu sans de multiples barrières. Le mot de passe est supprimé. EZproxy peut être configuré avec les principaux services d’authentification – LDAP, SIP et Shibboleth, de sorte que l’utilisateur n’ait pas à se souvenir de plusieurs mots de passe.

Les services de ce site sont compatibles avec les produits du «link resolvers/OpenURL» et des principaux systèmes de bibliothèque, y compris ceux de Serials Solutions, ExLibris, EBSCO et OCLC. Le «link resolvers/OpenURL» permet aux systèmes de bibliothèque de se lier au niveau de l’article du journal (ou aux titres de livres) en utilisant une syntaxe OpenURL. L’utilisation de cette méthode est avantageuse, en particulier lors de la liaison avec un contenu récemment publié puisqu’il ne nécessite pas que l’article soit préalablement téléchargé (Sabinet, (g) 2019). 

Cette initiative internationalement acceptée facilite l’enregistrement et la déclaration des statistiques d’utilisation en ligne de manière cohérente et crédible. Le service devient plus simple pour les clients afin de comprendre et d’analyser comment les livres électroniques et d’autres matériaux électroniques sont utilisés. Lorsque les rapports d’utilisation ont les mêmes types de données et sont formatés de la même manière, ils peuvent être comparés les uns aux autres et peuvent être automatiquement récupérés dans les systèmes locaux (NISO, 2019).

Outre ces dispositions techniques, Sabinet propose aux utilisateurs un moteur de recherche performant qui facilite la navigation.

L’interface utilisateur et le moteur de recherche

Le site web de Sabinet demande une inscription pour naviguer sans restrictions. Au niveau de la principale page qui est intitulée «Sabinet : Faciliting Access to Information», six (6) menus permettent de se connecter et de visiter le site. L’onglet «Home» raccourcit l’accès à cinq (5) menus. Par exemple, «About» présente entre autres la mission, l’équipe dirigeante, etc. «Products and Services» énumère le programme de ses trois services en l’occurrence : Library Solutions, Information Services and Digitization. Ensuite, le «Support» définit les différentes informations les politiques d’accès, d’authentification et des pratiques de prêts entre les autres bibliothèques. «New and Events» fournit les informations sur les activités et communications du site. Quant à «Corporate Social Investment», il décrit le projet de Sabinet.

En plus de ces menus sur la page, trois services (African Studies Collection, Online journal, News Services) sont proposés. African Studies Collection est une collection d’un large éventail de revues spécialisées, de médias et de contenus législatifs émanant du continent africain. Online journal propose des revues en ligne en provenance ou à destination de l’Afrique. Sabinet propose un nouveau service (News Services) personnalisé de recherche d’informations en ligne et de coupures de presse pour répondre aux divers besoins.

Ce nouveau service comprend:

La nouvelle base de données de African News Agency (ANA). Elle comprend : des rapports en texte intégral de novembre 2015 à ce jour sur l’actualité sud-africaine et africaine. Elle donne accès aux articles de presse importants de l’ancienne SAPA (ANA est le nouveau nom de SAPA). Ces articles  sont issus de cinq disciplines clés: la politique, l’économie, les entreprises et les marchés, le sport ainsi que l’actualité générale (qui comprend le mode de vie, les célébrités, les tribunaux et la criminalité). Les nouvelles des agences suivantes sont diffusées via l’Agence de presse africaine: ANA, ANA-Xinhau, ANA-dpa international et ANA-Associated Press.

Pour obtenir des informations sur les éditeurs, la collection, les publications, etc., il faut se rendre à la page intitulée «Sabinet African Journals» avec 7 menus : 

  • le menu «A-Z Publications» donne la liste des revues ou bien montre comment soumettre un article;
  • le menu «Collections» donne la liste des collections principales;
  • le menu «Open Access» indique les revues Open Access; de la politique d’accès, etc.
  • le menu «Publishers» dresse la liste des éditeurs;
  • le menu «For Librarians» présente les politiques d’accession aux informations pour les bibliothécaires;
  • l’onglet «Help» revient sur les conditions de souscription et du guide des utilisateurs;
  • enfin, le menu «Shopping Cat» permet de réserver les articles que l’on souhaite avoir.

En plus de ces menus sur la page, un autre onglet situé au-dessus de la bande à menus donne accès à «Advanced Search». Elle permet de filtrer les recherches par collection, par date, etc. (Sabinet, (d), 2019). Les utilisateurs de la bibliothèque peuvent récupérer des articles ou des chapitres de livres via un prêt entre bibliothèques. Cette possibilité d’accès est possible grâce à un dispositif technique diversifié, mais aussi, à un modèle d’affaires que propose Sabinet.


Le modèle d’affaires de Sabinet est basé sur trois possibilités d’accès à la collection. Il y a premièrement, des abonnés et deuxièmement des non-abonnés. Les abonnés ont accès à l’intégralité des revues et les non-abonnés payent pour accéder à des contenus. Troisièmement, on trouve les revues à accès libre. Les revues en accès libres sont divisées en trois modes d’accès : le «Gold Open Access» est dépourvu de toutes restrictions. Le «Green Open Access» est un accès semi-libre. Les éditeurs facturent des frais d’abonnement pour les récents numéros pendant une période donnée. Ensuite, l’accès devient gratuit.

Le troisième mode d’accès libre est «Article level Open Access». Ici, certains articles sont libres d’accès et d’autres sont payants. Pour soumettre un article à Sabinet, l’organisation demande à tout souscripteur de contacter directement un éditeur via leur site pour effectuer l’envoi. Il est accessible par ordinateur PC ou Machintosh. L’essentiel de sa clientèle est composé de bibliothèques locales et internationales, ainsi que des organismes publics et privés (Sabinet, (e) 2019). Les revenus de Sabinet proviennent aussi des frais de souscription ou des abonnements des bibliothèques.

       Modèle d’affaires

S Titles Subscribed To 0
OA Open Access Content 164
T Free Trial Content 0
N Titles Not Subscribed To 360


Sabinet a pour mission de promouvoir l’accès à l’information des recherches en Afrique. Dans ce sens, la plateforme remplit parfaitement ses objectifs. Elle diffuse 500 revues dont plus 164 en accès libre, 336 par souscription avec des frais pour le téléchargement. La grande partie des revues est issue de l’Afrique du Sud avec 184 sur 213 éditeurs. Sabinet offre une variété de services avec d’importantes possibilités d’accès. Cependant, l’accès renferme des imperfections qui ne facilitent pas l’utilisation des services. Une des  particularités est que les menus de l’interface ne donnent pas accès facilement aux revues. La fonctionnalité «Home» propose cinq menus dans lesquels il faut aller chercher pour trouver la liste des revues, des éditeurs, etc. De plus, l’on ne peut pas obtenir ces revues par pays sur une facette. Sabinet est une compagnie qui offre également d’autres services payants comme la numérisation, le catalogage, des documents des bibliothèques, etc.  Cependant, les frais de publication ou autres frais de service ne sont pas affichés.

Les produits compétitifs de Sabinet sont leurs trois services phares, notamment : la numérisation, le service d’information et le service aux bibliothèques. Ces produits permettent de soutenir leurs différents projets de bienfaisance aux établissements scolaires, à la création de l’emploi  et à la diffusion des produits de recherches de l’Afrique (Sabinet, (f), 2019). 


NISO, (2019). How the Information world Connects – SUSHI FAQs: General Questions http://www.niso.org/workrooms/sushi/faq/general/#q4

Sabinet,  (2019) (a). Sabinet : Facilitating Access to Information. https://sabinet.co.za/

Sabinet,  (2019) (b). Ownership. https://www.sabinet.co.za/index.php/ownership

Sabinet, (2019) (c).Collection Contents


Sabinet,  (2019) (d).  Sabinet African Journals. https://journals.co.za/


Sabinet,  (2019) (e). EZproxy https://www.sabinet.co.za/library-solutions/authentication-management

Sabinet, (2019) (f). SA Media https://www.sabinet.co.za/information-services/news-research-services/sa-media

Sabinet, (2019) (g). Librarian FAQ. shttp://journals.co.za/librarians-faq

Sabinet, (2019) (h). Scannage services. https://sabinet.co.za/digitisation/scanning-services

Sabinet, (2019) (i). About Digitisation. https://sabinet.co.za/digitisation/about-digitisation

The Charleston Advisor, (2019) (j). TCA Scoring Guide.

OA APC longitudinal survey 2019

OA APC longitudinal survey 2019


This post presents results of the 2019 OA APC longitudinal survey and extends an invitation to participate in an open peer review process of the underlying data and its documentation. One thing that is not changing is that most OA journals in DOAJ do not charge APCs: 10,210 (73%) of the 14,007 journals in DOAJ as of Nov. 26, 2019 do not have APCs. The global average APC in 2019 is 908 USD. This figure has changed little since 2010, however this consistency masks considerably underlying variation. For example, the average APC in 2019 for the 2010 sample has increased by 50%, a rate three times the inflation rate for this time frame. The tendency to charge or not to charge, how much is charged and whether prices are increasing or decreasing varies considerably by journal, publisher, country of publication, language and currency. One surprise this year was the top 10 countries by number of OA journals in DOAJ. As usual, Europe, the US and Latin America are well represented, but Indonesia is now the second largest country in DOAJ and Poland, Iran, and Turkey are among the top 10, perhaps reflecting the work of the DOAJ ambassadors. Pricing per journal shows mixed trends; most journals did not change price between 2018 and 2019, but there were price decreases as well as increases. The UK’s Ubiquity Press as having a relatively low APC (a fraction of Oxford’s, another UK-based publisher) and no price increases.


The Sustaining the Knowledge Commons team has been gathering data on OA APCs since 2014 and merging data from DOAJ and other researchers into the main dataset. Singh & Morrison (2019) note that the majority of fully OA journals do not charge; of those that do, the global average APC is 908 USD, a figure that has changed very little since 2010. In contrast, the mode (most common APC) shows quite a bit of variation and the maximum has been increasing for both APC and APPC (article page processing charge). This suggests that there is something else going on.

Shi & Morrison’s (2019) findings illustrate that charging trends can vary considerable by publisher. 4 pairs of publishers and sub-publishers are compared. Two Wolters Kluwer imprints, Medknow and Lippincott, are quite different in APCs. Medknow journals tend not to charge, and those that have APCs tend to have relatively low APCs. Lippincott journals tend to charge, at above-average rates. Two universities, Indonesia’s Universitas Negeri Semerang (UNS) (now one of the largest publishers in DOAJ) and Oxford are compared. Oxford is one of the world’s oldest publishers, is UK based, and tends to charge APCs at above-average rates. UNS appears to be a newcomer to online publishing, uses the open source Open Journal System; UNS journals tend not to charge, and when they do charge, prices are relatively low. Oxford was also compared with another UK-based publisher, Ubiquity Press. Ubiquity Press is a new not-for-profit designed to produce OA works and also to achieve cost efficiency. It appears that Ubiquity is having success with the latter, as their average APC is a fraction of that of Oxford. MDPI and Hindawi are compared; both are new commercial APC-based publishers, but the average APC is much higher for Hindawi than for MDPI. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the global average APC masks considerable variation based on publisher history and strategy.

Avasthi & Morrison (2019) explore one of these publishers, Medknow, in more depth, and ask whether this approach is the best for India, the original home of the publisher before acquisition by Wolters Kluwer. It appears that the reason most Medknow journals do not have publication charges is because of numerous partnerships between Wolters Kluwer and scholarly societies and universities. Medknow has expanded beyond India, and has grown quite a bit in both 2018 and 2019. The number of “title not found” and a couple of “risky URL” (a code for when the URL on the publisher’s website leads to a website that is clearly not a journal and gives the appearance of a possible scam) raises some questions about whether the quality of service these journals receive are what they expect and deserve through a partnership with one of the world’s oldest EU-based commercial scholarly publishers.

Pashaei & Morrison (2019a) compare APCs by original currency. Over half of APC charging journals have USD as original currency, and 5 currencies account for more than 90% of APCs. Average prices by currency are translated into USD, and these prices vary quite a bit. APCs in GBP and more than twice as high as APCs in EUR.

Pashaei & Morrison (2019b) compare APCs (pricing and tendency to charge) by language. The tendency to charge varies quite a bit by language (first language listed in DOAJ). For example, 98% of journals in Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Czech do not have publication fees, while about a third of journals in English or Persian have APCs. The average APC for English-language journals is more than 3 times the second highest language-basis APC (Catalan).

Pashaei & Morrison (2019c) studied the correlation of country in DOAJ, OA journal publishing, and APC. As expected, Europe, the US, and Latin America are well represented in DOAJ. There were some surprises. Indonesia is now the second largest country in DOAJ, and Poland, Iran, and Turkey, are among the top 10. This may reflect the work of the DOAJ ambassadors’ program. Tendency to charge and average APC both vary quite a bit depending on the publisher in question.

Morrison (2019a) studied charging trends for journals with APC amounts for both 2018 and 2019 and found considerable variation. Most of these journals did not change in APC, but many decreased prices and many more increased prices. The tendency to increase prices was more marked for journals listed in DOAJ as of Jan. 31, 2019. An analysis of trends and average APCs for publisher with 2 or more journals in this set revealed very different patterns. A few publishers did not increase prices. Ubiquity Press stands out as having a relatively low price and no price increase. For some publishers, tendency to decrease and increase prices cancel each other out. 6 publishers had average price increases of more than 10%: Wolters Kluwer Medknow, MDPI, Oxford, Elsevier, BioMedCentral, and Frontiers.

Morrison (2019b) studied status and charging trends for journals included in Solomon & Björk’s (2012) 2010 study, limited to a sample of journals listed in DOAJ and charging APCs at that time. The majority of these journals are still active and charging. The average APC has increased in this time frame by 50%, more than 3 times the inflation. Not all journals have increased in price; some decreased and others remained the same price. Nearly a quarter of these journals have ceased or are not found. Most of this attrition appears to be due to new OA APC-based commercial publishers with a start-up strategy of publishing a wide range of journals, then retiring unsuccessful journals.

Full documentation, link to open dataset, and invitation to participate in open peer review

Morrison, H. et al. (2019). OA Main 2019: Dataset, documentation and open peer review invitation. Sustaining the knowledge commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/20/oa-main-2019-dataset-documentation-and-open-peer-review-invitation/

Dataset: Morrison, Heather, et al. 2019, “OA APC longitudinal study dataset 2019”, https://doi.org/10.5683/SP2/0DIPGE, Scholars Portal Dataverse, V1

Cite as: Morrison, H. et al. (2019). OA APC longitudinal survey 2019. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/27/oa-apc-longitudinal-survey-2019/


Avasthi, N & Morrison, H (2019). Medknow 2019 – is this the best for India? Sustaining the Knowledge commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/23/medknow-2019-is-this-the-best-for-india/

Morrison, H. (2019a). APC price changes 2019 – 2018 by journal and by publisher. Sustaining the knowledge commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/26/apc-price-changes-2019-2018-by-journal-and-by-publisher/

Morrison, H. (2019b). 2010 – 2019 APC update. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/26/2010-2019-apc-update/

Pashaei, H. & Morrison, H. (2019a). Open Access in 2019: Original currencies for article processing charge. Sustaining the knowledge commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/26/open-access-in-2019-original-currencies-for-article-processing-charge/

Pashaei, H. & Morrison, H. (2019b). DOAJ 2019: Language analysis. Sustaining the knowledge commonshttps://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/26/doaj-2019-language-analysis/

Pashaei, H. & Morrison, H. (2019c). Open Access in 2019: Which countries are the biggest publishers of OA journals? Sustaining the knowledge commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/26/open-access-in-2019-which-countries-are-the-biggest-publishers-of-oa-journals/

Shi, A & Morrison, H. (2019). APCs comparisons among different publishers in 2019. Sustaining the knowledge https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/26/apcs-comparisons-among-different-publishers-in-2019/

Singh, S. & Morrison, H. (2019). OA journals non-charging and charging central trends 2010 – 2019. Sustaining the knowledge commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/11/23/oa-journals-non-charging-and-charging-central-trends-2010-2019/

Solomon, D. J. and Björk, B. (2012), A study of open access journals using article processing charges. J Am Soc Inf Sci Tec, 63: 1485-1495. doi:10.1002/asi.22673