Open Science and Open Media Studies: Questions on a culture in transition

In the open access week 2018, I wrote a blogpost for the Open Media Studies blog, in conjunction with open acccess Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft on open science and open media Studies. You can find the original post here.

Below you find the text, which is published under a cc-by license on the Open Media Studies blog. I hereby want to take the opportunity to thank Alena Strohmeier and Sarah-Mai Dang for inviting me to write this guest post.


Open Media Studies as a term or concept is obviously not isolated. It comes out of a larger international debate on new developments around research and publishing practices in a digitized and open environment, often referred to as «open science». However, what exactly is open science? More precisely: what is Open Media Studies? For me this is a question with no definitive answer. Moreover, I think we do not need one.

Open science as a collective term stands for many things; open access to publications, open research data, open source software, research tools, open peer review, open hardware, open citations, etc. In short: these are all results of practicing «openness» within the entire research cycle, considering values and principles defining what could possibly be the best way of doing this. Needless to say, that for every researcher this could mean different things.

For the humanities and to a lesser extent the social sciences, the term open science is somehow problematic. It implies a direct relation with the (natural) sciences and that indeed is the area where these practices indeed are much stronger developed. However, research practices in the sciences are incomparable with practices in the humanities (and social sciences). Not to mention the differences in publication cultures. For almost all disciplines in the humanities, it is about the art of rhetoric and argumentation to reflect on and debate culture, cultural production, society and people’s behaviour, resulting in long articles, and books, based on original sources and/or historical data. Open access, reuse and transparency of research practices, data and publications will probably mean a different thing to a physicist than it will to a media scholar.

In many current discussions however, and I hear this from researchers as well, the focus is on Open Science. This is problematic in my opinion. The terms open scholarship or open research are more inclusive in this context. Nevertheless, every term has its limitations. Open science might leave out the «scholarly» approach. Most (citizen) scientists outside academia do not consider themselves as scholars and would probably feel uncomfortable by using open scholarship. Similarly, open research leaves out education.

At the risk of being bogged down in a never-ending semantic discussion, I hereby just want to state that it is not as simple as one might think and there will not be a one-size fits all solution. However, there should not be two separate worlds. There is much to learn from each other. Are humanities lagging behind? No, and I think media studies in particular is not lagging behind and it would be worthwhile if we look at existing best-practices in opening up research in media and communication studies and ask ourselves too what we can learn from what is happening in the sciences.

In 2015, colleagues Bianca Kramer and Jeroen Bosman from the Utrecht University Library started their 101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication project. In this project, they commenced a survey amongst more than 20.000 scholars worldwide. The landscape of scholarly communication is constantly changing and the changes are driven by technology, policies, and culture. However, in the end, the researchers themselves are the ones using tools and software in order to produce science and they are adapting constantly to new standards. Kramer and Bosman started the survey in order to create an overview of all these tools used for research, writing and publishing.


Fig 1. Respondent’s demographics: discipline(s) (https://101innovations.wordpress.com/survey-results/demographics/)

From this survey we can learn a lot about the use of research practices and tools but it is striking that only 12,5% of the respondents were from the humanities. Only a very small portion of this percentage had a background in media studies. For further discussion, it would be helpful to work on collecting more data about open access and open science practices in media studies.

How does media and communication studies fit into this?

Back in 2006, when I started at Amsterdam University Press (AUP) as a publisher, literally almost not a single author I talked with had heard of Open Access. This of course is only part of the truth, since we have seen important developments in that period with the launch of, amongst others, MediaCommons (2006), University of Michigan Press’ digitalculturebooks project (2006) and a bit later the community blog Film Studies For Free (2008). Open access was on the minds of media scholars but at that time very much isolated and mostly driven by individual frustrations with the traditional publishing system. In recent years, however, there has been a growing number of scholars experimenting with new ways of publishing their research (e.g. Lev Manovich, Kathleen Fitzpatrick, David Gauntlett, Miklos Kiss) using iterative writing and new online publishing formats.

Meanwhile, discussions about the issues of access to academic literature were mainly held between libraries, funders and (science) publishers. In 2008, together with five other European university presses, AUP started the OAPEN platform for depositing and disseminating open access monographs. At that time, it was one of the first online platforms for publishers to give and for readers to get access to academic books. Today over 120 publishers worldwide are depositing their books on the OAPEN platform. They have reached over 6,4 million downloads (counting started in 2013) and the collection of media and communication related books is growing steadily. The Directory of Open Access Books indexes over 140 open access books tagged as media studies. The Knowledge Unlatched project, a service to support open access books, and which started in 2014, offers a media & communication studies list and helped to «unlatch» 31 books in open access with financial support from libraries. More than 190 full open access journals are tagged under communication and (mass) media studies in the Directory of Open Access Journals. Impressive numbers over the years, but if you think about what the yearly global output of scholarly articles and books in media studies is, there is only one conclusion: open access in media studies is still in its infancy.

Scholars unite!

All the above examples are wonderful but if we want to move forward more quickly we need to change the way we think about (the culture of) publishing. In his article from 2016, «Open Media Scholarship: The Case for Open Access in Media Studies», Jeff Pooley argues that «media and communication scholars should be in the forefront of the open access movement». One of his arguments is that «the topics that we write about are inescapably multimedia, so our publishing platforms should be capable – at the very least – of embedding the objects that we study».

I would like to add to this that we not only need platforms and publishing models that are robust, sustainable and capable of dealing with (old and new) multimedia formats but we also need to think about how do we connect publishing infrastructure(s) and (multimedia) archives in a sensible way? We need a better sense of interoperable (open) infrastructures and metadata to connect online publications to archives and audio-visual source material.

Another important aspect of advancing scholarly communication is to speed up the process of publishing journals and books in media and communication studies. The time between an article’s submission to a published version can take a very long time, sometimes even years. Review pressure is getting out of hand. Why are we sticking to this idea of a «final version», which is publishable? What if we change that thinking into: «it is not a version of record we need; it is a record of versions»?1

Pre-/and post-print publishing is almost non-existent in the humanities, and besides a few examples this is also true for media studies. Apparently, it is difficult to share research results before it is published in a journal or as a book. On the other hand, everyone seems to be eager to share their publications in different stages of their research in academic social networks like ResearchGate and Academia.edu. Why is it still not common practice in the humanities to share the work on a preprint server, comparable with ArXiv or SSRN, and new emerging disciplinary preprint servers? Lack of knowledge and fear seems to be an issue here. Creating awareness and discuss the potential benefits and pitfalls of pre-publications with the media studies network is essential here.

Now research councils are taking position

This academic year started with big news on open access. On September 4th Plan S was presented by a coalition of 11 national research funders (the German DFG is not one of them) supported by the European Commission. After the launch, people supportive of open access reacted positively: finally, something will happen and this could lead to a breakthrough! Publishers on the other hand immediately started their engines to counter the announced policy of the coalition. But what exactly does Plan S entail? Current (online) discussions are mostly held between funders, publishers, librarians and open access advocates. What are the implications of Plan S for the humanities, and more specifically media studies?

The easy explanation: from 2020 onwards, all research output funded by one of these 11 research councils needs to be published in open access under a CC-BY license and without an embargo period. One of the more challenging parts of the plan is the rejection of hybrid open access journals (subscription journals that allow authors to pay for freeing up their articles). To give an example of what this could imply:

Taylor & Francis has 2.300+ hybrid journals. 95 of those journals have media in their title and are in the hybrid journal portfolio. If you as a researcher want to publish research funded by let’s say the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), all those journals currently do not comply with the set of principles stated in Plan S. So you aren’t allowed to publish in any of those journals.

This raises of course many questions: How will (existing) publishers react to Plan S? Will they change their existing hybrid journal portfolios and current open access business models? Will there be enough other options to publish your work? What does this all mean for my career path and me as a researcher? Moreover, a much heard comment: how does this relate to the academic freedom (and comments) to publish where you want? The immediate implications for media scholar are likely to be small, since the majority of research funded by these research councils is in the sciences. However, the above questions will get more pressing when this coalition and the principles get a broader support (e.g. universities).

Up to now, most of the researchers’ responses are from the sciences. As far as I’ve seen there are only a few responses from humanities researchers about what this policy could mean for researchers in general, academic freedom and for open access books but more are very much welcome.

A closing remark

Addressing some of the pressing issues in a rapidly changing and evolving world of scholarly communication, illustrates how these changes have affected media scholars so far, and raise several more questions. I hope it can lead to a broader discussion amongst media scholars (and networks like GfM, NECS and SCMS) about how we would like to see in which direction the culture of Open Media Studies needs to go.

For further reading and information on open access policies, funding and publishing in media studies: www.oamediastudies.com

  1. Credits to my colleague Bianca Kramer for using this quote.

Jeroen Sondervan

One Year Later

Last year, during open access week, the Radical Open Access Collective re-launched with a new website, a directory of academic-led presses and an information platform for OA (book) publishing. We would like to share with you some of ROAC’s highlights for this year. Let us know if we’ve missed something or if there is anything you would like to add to this overview.

    • The Radical OA Collective grew its membership substantially: at our launch in October last year we had 25+ members, our community now consists of 54 members, Open Access in Media Studies being the latest to join!
    • For Radical OA II we published 7 pamphlets, available during the conference in both print and OA, covering topics such as Metrics Noir, Competition and Collaboration and the Geopolitics of Open. Each pamphlet was edited by a ROAC member or affiliate. The OA versions of the pamphlets are available on the Humanities Commons platform here: https://hcommons.org/deposits/?facets[author_facet][]=Post+Office+Press
    • We presented the ROAC at a number of conferences, including: COASP (Vienna), Digital Cultures (Lüneburg), Crossroads in Cultural Studies (Shanghai), OA Monographs (UUK, London), NECS Post-conference: Open Media Studies(Hilversum), Radical Open Access II (Coventry), Beyond APCs Open Aire workshop (The Hague), Open Access Tage (Dresden)
    • The ScholarLed Consortium was formed by 6 members of the ROAC pooling skills and resources to develop open infrastructure, tools, workflows and processes for OA publishing: https://scholarled.org/
    • We organised a bookstand together with our friends from ScholarLed which was set up at the 2nd Radical OA Conference in Coventry and at Crossroads in Cultural Studies in Shanghai. In Coventry we ran 2 short talks alongside the bookstand, and in Shanghai we organised a round table on OA publishing in Cultural Studies.
  • Looking forward, we hope to continue to welcome new members to the collective and develop our suite of tools to encourage and support others to start their own publishing projects. If you run a not-for-profit OA publishing initiative or are interested in starting your own scholar-led publishing project, we encourage you to join the Radical OA mailing list and get involved with the discussion!

    About the ROAC

    Formed in 2015, the Radical OA Collective is a community of scholar-led, not-for-profit presses, journals and other open access projects in the humanities and social sciences. We represent an alternative open access ecosystem and seek to create a different future for open access, one based on experimenting with not-for-profit, scholar-led approaches to publishing. You can read more about the philosophy behind the collective here: https://radicaloa.co.uk/philosophy/

    As a collective, we offer mutual reliance and support for each other’s projects by sharing the knowledge and resources we have acquired. Through our projects we also aim to provide advice, support and encouragement to academics and other not-for-profit entities interested in setting up their own publishing initiatives. Our website contains a Directory of academic-led presses, which showcases the breadth and rich diversity in scholar-led presses currently operating in an international context and across numerous fields, and an Information Portal with links to resources on funding opportunities for open access books, open source publishing tools, guidelines on editing standards, ethical publishing and diversity in publishing, and OA literature useful to not-for-profit publishing endeavours.

Call for contribution: The social responsibility of organisations and companies in French-speaking Africa

Sahel landscape

A collective work project under done by the following researchers Victorine Ghislaine NZINO MUNONGO, researcher at the Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation, Cameroon, Martial JEUGUE DOUNGUE, PhD, Researcher-Lecturer, L. Christelle BELPORO, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada and Hermann NANAN LEKOGMO, PhD, Catholic University of Central Africa (UCAC-APDHAC)

Publication date: December 2018
Call for contributions on Calenda : https://calenda.org/438721

Argument

Considering on the one hand, the current global village under construction in which many stakeholders are called to interact towards the realisation of a common destiny and, on the other hand, the concern for the preservation of local resources, the need for a more concrete implementation emerges from the principle of integration. The objectives of sustainable development (OSD) were thus adopted with the aim, by 2030, to eliminate poverty in all its forms through the promotion of sustainable industrialisation that benefits all, and promotes innovation and research and encourages large companies and transnational corporations to adopt and integrate viable practices. The essential aim of objectives is to create jobs, increase local wealth through gross domestic product (GDP) and more efficient use of resources through the use of clean, socially inclusive and environmentally friendly industrial technologies and processes.

The current economic environment in Sub-Saharan Africa faces several challenges:

  1. An estimated population explosion of 1.1 billion inhabitants with a projection of 2.4 billion in 2050 [1], which represents one third of the world’s population. In addition, 60 per cent of the African population is less than 35 years old [2] and is made up of young people eager for goods and consumption.
  2. An urbanisation that is done at a high speed in terms of the occupancy of space by populations: statistics mention 472 million inhabitants living in urban areas and double this figure within the next twenty-five years [3]. These figures indicate the existence of a significant gradual concentration of demand and supply of goods and services in urban areas and a growing economy with a forecast of 2.6% in 2017[4]. According to the World Bank, this growth is slowed-down by the infrastructure deficit, which has the effect of limiting companies’ productivity to 40% [5].
  3. A pretty glaring lack of infrastructure. There is therefore a vital need to invest massively for the construction of viable spaces that can accommodate this growing population and meet companies’ expectations. However, the bill for these operations will probably be quite salty. According to finance experts, the need for investment in infrastructure construction in Africa is estimated at 93 billion Dollars per year [6]. In an environment where 43 per cent of the whole population lives below the poverty line.[7], the challenge is not only to prepare the ground for a so-called inclusive economy but also a system of production, sales and consumption that respects the Human dignity while preserving the environment. Hence the reference to social responsibility of companies/organisations.

According to Bambara and his colleagues, the social responsibility of organisations (RSO) is perceived as the « responsibility of an organisation for the impact of its decisions and activities on the society and the environment, resulting in transparent and ethical behaviour that contributes to sustainable development including the health of people and the well-being of society, takes into account the expectations of stakeholders, respects the laws in force and is compatible with the standards and is integrated into the Organisation as a whole and implemented in its relations”[8]. Moreover, according to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the social responsibility of companies/organisations (CSR) expresses « … the way in which companies take into account the impact of their activities on society and affirm their principles and values both in the application of their internal methods and processes and in their relations with other actors”[9]. The ILO definition addresses the sociological approach of CSR, which presents this concept « … As a matter of social regulation involving, behind the institution of the enterprise, social actors in Conflict »[10]. Henceforth, as Mc William and Siegel would say, it is a matter of considering CSR « … as actions to improve social well-being beyond the interests of the firm and what is required by law ».[11]. This presentation of the concept sets out in a comprehensive way the issue of integrating a CSR/RSO into a company.

The legal-political framework of CSR/RSO in Africa is a real challenge. If the perception that the States have of this tool is full of nuances, companies also have the perception. The management and implementation tools for CSR/SAR in African countries and businesses deserve to be analysed in order to understand and translate the scope of CSR/RSO in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the innovative nature of the Western concept of CSR/RSO in Africa and the changing apprehension of the latter in terms of social realities, there are implementing approaches that position companies as actors with responsibility to contribute to the eradication of poverty.

The aim of this book is to address the responses offered by CSR/RSO in Sub-Saharan Africa under the prism of the various challenges that the latter faces. We want to better understand exchanges of influence existing between this concept and the Saharan African environment, in other words, analyse the contribution of CSR/RSO in the Saharan African environment and in return, changes undergone by this concept because of adaptation to its setting environment.

This book will address stakeholders such as public and parastatal administrations, the private sector, academic and professional institutions, civil society, etc.

The expected contributions must concern one of the following aspects:

  1. CSR/SAR and Sustainable Development Goals, by 2030 in Sub-Saharan Africa;
  2. CSR/SAR and poverty alleviation in Saharan countries;
  3. CSR/SAR in the forestry sector in Sub-Saharan Africa;
  4. Industrialisation, clean technology and economic growth in Saharan countries;
  5. Sustainable Industrialisation, research and innovation in Saharan countries;
  6. Major corporations, transnational corporations and human rights;
  7. Sustainable production policy in SMI/SME in Sub-Saharan Africa;
  8. Protection of means of substances and basic production in the face of environmental crises in Cameroon; etc.

The chapters will be assessed according to the open-ended method of ESBC (between authors of the book, with publication of a summary of the evaluations).

Book creation process

This book project is opened to all, in a state of mind that rejects any prospect of competition or exclusion. On the contrary, the aim of the cognitive justice of this book leads us to want to open it to all knowledge and to all epistemologies,

As much as it helps us to understand its purpose. We will therefore work with all authors who want to participate in this adventure to improve their proposal or their text so that this book becomes a valuable resource.

In terms of writing instructions, it is quite possible to include pictures or other images. It is also possible to propose, as a chapter, the transcription of an interview or a testimonial or a video for the online version, if it enables knowledge to enter our book. On the other hand, in order to maximize the accessibility and use of the book, we ask to restrict the use of any specialised jargon.

The circulation of this call in all African universities is crucial in order to respect the aim of cognitive justice and regional circulation of information.

Note that the writing of these chapters is voluntary and will not be remunerated. The gratification of authors will be to see their chapter spread and be used in the service of the common good of Africa.

Authors participating in the production of the book will be invited to exchange throughout the writing and editing process on a Facebook or WhatsApp group, in order to share ideas, references and early versions, in the spirit of mutual support and collaboration that is promoted by cognitive justice.

Calendar

  • March 2018: Call launch
  • July 31st  2018: Deadline to send a proposal (a summary of few sentences) or a chapter
  • August 31st 2018: Response to proposals and reception of chapters until October 31st 2018.
  • December 2018: Publication of a complete online version and print copies upon request.

To participate

As soon as possible, send a message to the following email address propositions@editionscienceetbiencommun.org with your biography (in few lines), the complete contact details of your institution or association and a summary of the chapter (or chapters) that you want to propose. This summary consists of presenting in few sentences the content of the text you wish to propose, associating it, as far as possible, with one of the proposed topics.

Notes

[1]Croissance démographique, http://www.unesco.org/new/fr/africa-department/priority-africa/operational-strategy/demographic-growth/. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[2] Idem.

[3]  Rapport sur l’urbanisation en Afrique : pour soutenir la croissance il faut améliorer la vie des habitants et des entreprises dans les villes, http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2017/02/09/world-bank-report-improving-conditions-for-people-and-businesses-in-africas-cities-is-key-to-growth. (Consulté le 15/08/2017).

Cf. Félix Zogning,Ahmadou Aly Mbaye,Marie-Thérèse Um-Ngouem, L’économie informelle, l’entrepreneuriat et l’emploi, Editions JFD, 2017 p.81.

[4] http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/region/afr/overview. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[5] Le nécessaire développement des infrastructures pour une croissance plus inclusive en Afrique, https://www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats/cercle/cercle-164856-le-necessaire-developpement-des-infrastructures-pour-une-croissance-plus-inclusive-en-afrique-2056658.php. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[6] Idem.

[7] Toujours plus de personnes pauvres en Afrique malgré les progrès réalisés en matière d’éducation et de santé, http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2015/10/16/africa-gains-in-health-education-but-numbers-of-poor-grow. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[8] M. BAMBARA et A. SENE, « L’évolution de la responsabilité sociétale de l’entreprise à la faveur du développement durable: vers une juridicisation de la RSE »  in Revue Africaine du Droit de l’Environnement, nᵒ 00, 2012, p.100.

[9]L’OIT et la responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise, Helpdesk du BIT N◦1,  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/—emp_ent/—multi/documents/publication/wcms_142693.pdf (consulté le 12/02/2015).

[10] Emmanuelle Champion et al., Les représentations de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises : un éclairage sociologique, Les cahiers de la Chaire de responsabilité sociale et développement durable ESG-UQÀM – collection recherche No 05-2005, p.4.

[11] MacWilliams, A. & Siegel, D., cité par Marianne Rubinstein, « Le développement de la responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise », Revue d’économie industrielle [En ligne], 113 | 1er trimestre 2006, mis en ligne le 21 avril 2008, consulté le 18 janvier 2015. URL :http://rei.revues.org/295.

Le CAMES 1968-2018. Un demi-siècle au service de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche en Afrique

Auteur : Chikouna Cissé, maître de conférences, Département d’histoire, Université Houphouët-Boigny, Côte d’Ivoire

Date de parution : 26 mai 2018 (lancement à Ouagadougou dans le cadre du Cinquantenaire du CAMES)

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

Le Conseil africain et malgache pour l’enseignement supérieur (CAMES), fondé à Niamey en 1968, est une institution panafricaine au cœur de l’histoire intellectuelle et scientifique de l’Afrique francophone moderne. À l’occasion de son cinquantenaire, l’historien Chikouna Cissé fait le point sur l’ensemble des faits et des humains qui ont fait de cette institution celle qu’elle est devenue en 2018, de la volonté initiale des chefs d’État de l’OCAM à son Plan stratégique de développement 2015-2019. Cette histoire part à la recherche des traces matérielles, des solidarités originelles et des stratifications générationnelles qui ont permis au CAMES d’advenir, de surmonter obstacles et erreurs et d’avancer vers la modernité. Elle convoque de nombreux angles d’analyse issus du droit, de l’économie, de la philosophie des sciences et de la sociologie. Comment le CAMES a-t-il produit sa légitimité juridique et scientifique dans un contexte décolonial? Comment cette institution a-t-elle été financée? Quelle place son système d’évaluation occupe-t-il dans les politiques universitaires des pays membres? Qu’a fait le CAMES pour encourager la recherche africaine? Utilisant autant l’analyse des documents que l’histoire orale, ce livre permettra à toute l’Afrique de s’approprier l’histoire d’une de ses institutions les plus remarquables.

Illustration de couverture : design de Kate McDonnell

  • ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-56-7
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : : 978-2-924661-55-0

Pour acheter le livre imprimé en Afrique, contactez le CAMES à communication@cames.online ou par téléphone à +226 25 36 81 46.

Pour acheter le livre ailleurs, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org. 

Les Classiques des sciences sociales : 25 ans de partage des savoirs dans la francophonie

Sous la direction d’Émilie Tremblay et Ricarson Dorcé

Date de parution : 9 mai 2018 (lancement à l’Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

 

La bibliothèque numérique francophone Les Classiques des sciences sociales fête ses 25 ans en 2018. Que s’est-il passé au cours de ces 25 années? Comment la bibliothèque s’est-elle construite? Quels sont les choix qui s’offrent à elle actuellement et pour l’avenir? Cet ouvrage collectif a un premier but : raconter, au fil de plusieurs récits et témoignages, la vie autour de ce projet exceptionnel : les motivations et idéaux derrière sa création, les hommes et les femmes impliqués à différentes périodes et son immense impact dans la francophonie. Il constitue aussi un hommage au fondateur des Classiques, Jean-Marie Tremblay, ainsi qu’à toutes les personnes qui ont œuvré au développement de cette bibliothèque numérique, en particulier l’équipe internationale de bénévoles.

Cet ouvrage collectif propose également plusieurs chapitres qui visent à réfléchir aux notions, questions et pratiques au cœur du projet des Classiques des sciences sociales, ainsi qu’aux enjeux contemporains des bibliothèques numériques : l’accès libre aux publications scientifiques, la gestion des données, la numérisation et la préservation du patrimoine scientifique, la justice sociale, les communs numériques, la justice cognitive et le patrimoine numérique. Ces contributions, par leur diversité et leur qualité, enrichissent la réflexion sur l’avenir des Classiques des sciences sociales, mettent en lumière des possibilités inexplorées et permettent de faire des liens avec d’autres initiatives et projets similaires.

Illustration de couverture : design de Kate McDonnell, photo d’Émilie Tremblay

  • ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-54-3
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : : 978-2-924661-52-9

Pour acheter le livre en France ou au Canada, par chèque ou virement bancaire : écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Pour le commander en ligne (des frais de port de 9 $ s’ajouteront) :

Abdou Moumouni Dioffo (1929-1991). Le précurseur nigérien de l’énergie solaire

Auteur : Sous la direction de Frédéric Caille

Date de parution : 7 avril 2018 (lancement à Niamey)

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

Issu du livre Du soleil pour tous. L’énergie solaire au Sénégal : un droit, des droits, une histoire (2018), cet ouvrage est un hommage au travail du professeur Abdou Moumouni Dioffo, dont la portée et le caractère précurseur sont plus sensibles que jamais. Promouvoir les usages multiformes et le développement immédiat de l’énergie solaire en Afrique, perfectionner les procédés de conversion et les matériels, défendre la priorité des investissements de recherche et de formation : tels furent les trois grands axes de l’action pionnière du physicien nigérien Abdou Moumouni Dioffo, premier grand spécialiste internationalement reconnu de l’énergie solaire issu du continent le plus ensoleillé de la planète.

Ce livre contient :

  • une réédition des deux articles d’Abdou Moumouni Dioffo « L’énergie solaire dans les pays africains » (1964) et « L’éducation scientifique et technique dans ses rapports avec le développement en Afrique » (1969).
  • une reprise de deux textes d’Albert-Michel Wright, ingénieur héliotechnicien et ancien collaborateur d’Abdou Moumouni Dioffo qui fut son successeur à la direction de l’Office Nigérien de l’Énergie Solaire (ONERSOL).
  • un portfolio d’une trentaine de photographies inédites de Marc Jacquet-Pierroulet, ancien Volontaire Français du Progrès au laboratoire d’Abdou Moumouni Dioffo à Niamey de 1970 à 1972.
  • un texte de Salamatou Doudou sur la vie d’Abdou Moumouni Dioffo.

Puissent les jeunes d’Afrique et d’ailleurs être nombreux à suivre son exemple !

Illustration de couverture : design de Kate McDonnell, pour la collection Mémoires des Suds

  • ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-48-2
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : : 978-2-924661-46-8

Pour acheter le livre en France ou au Canada, par chèque ou virement bancaire : écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

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Appel : Non-violence et politique : un compagnon pédagogique

Projet d’une anthologie sur la non-violence et la politique, sous la direction éditoriale de Cécile Dubernet (pour la version francophone) et de Justin Scherer (pour la version anglophone) de l’Institut catholique de Paris. Des versions dans d’autres langues sont également envisagées.

Ce projet vise à construire un outil unique, multilingue à terme, regroupant des analyses d’écrits connus et moins connus, afin d’éclairer les relations complexes entre politique et non-violence qui sont trop souvent négligées en science politique. Il vise également à mobiliser les chercheurs et chercheuses (universitaires ou non) qui s’intéressent au sujet, mais qui sont souvent dispersés sur différentes disciplines et différents continents.

Le livre s’adressera à des enseignant.e.s, des enseignant.e.s-chercheur.e.s, des formateurs et formatrices qui souhaitent explorer les interfaces et les interactions entre la non-violence et la politique avec leurs étudiant.e.s. Il aura également pour audience des étudiant.e.s qui s’intéressent à la non-violence et se demandent pourquoi le sujet est si rarement abordé en salle de classe ou en séminaire universitaire. Enfin, les responsables espèrent que cette collection de textes permettra aux activistes non-violents d’explorer les racines conceptuelles et historiques de leur pratique, voire de leur art.

Calendrier

Les propositions de contribution à ce projet sont attendues pour le 30 juillet 2018 en français ou en anglais. D’un maximum de 5000 caractères, chaque proposition présentera brièvement un document (extrait de livre, transcription de discours, production pamphlétaire, etc..), son/ses auteur.e.s, l’importance historique de ce document et l’intérêt qu’il y aurait à en inclure une analyse dans une anthologie sur la non-violence et la politique. Il est possible de proposer plusieurs contributions (textes). Un bref CV de l’auteur.e de la proposition est également attendu.

Si une telle collection de textes ne peut faire l’impasse d’auteurs classiques sur le sujet (Gandhi, King, Havel, Sharp etc.), les propositions concernant des écrits/auteur.e.s peu connus seront examinés avec grand intérêt. De même, des textes en langues minoritaires, mais qui permettent de mieux comprendre comment ces thèmes se déclinent localement, sont les bienvenus. Enfin des propositions de cas d’études (courtes analyses d’événements politiques non violents) peuvent également être déposées auprès des éditeurs :

Cécile Dubernet c.dubernet@icp.fr

Justin Scherer justin.k.scherer@gmail.com

Un retour sera fait aux auteur.e.s fin octobre 2018. Les contributions finales d’un maximum de 15000 caractères, incluant les citations et extraits du texte étudié (8000 caractères pour les cas d’étude) sont attendues pour fin janvier 2019 en vue d’une publication dans le courant de l’été 2019.

Les valeurs et le projet éditorial des Éditions science et bien commun

Merci de les lire attentivement sur cette page.

Les consignes d’écriture sont sur cette page.

Argumentaire détaillé

La non-violence ne fait généralement pas partie des programmes scolaires ou universitaires en sciences sociales, et ce pour plusieurs raisons : tout d’abord c’est un sujet transdisciplinaire puisant dans des champs aussi divers que l’éducation, la sociologie, la science politique, la psychologie, l’histoire, la théologie. C’est donc un thème qui s’insère mal dans un monde de spécialistes, monde dans lequel le savoir est découpé en disciplines. Deuxièmement, ses racines et ses liens forts avec les pensées religieuses et spirituelles en font un sujet d’enseignement délicat, incitant les enseignants à se cantonner à des exemples historiques. Troisièmement, le fait qu’en politique la non-violence soit communément associée à des leaders hauts en couleurs (Gandhi, Martin Luther King, le Dalai Lama..) encourage une histoire quelque peu mythifiée car centrée sur ces personnages historiques (et sympathiques !) plutôt que sur des processus politiques. Enfin, il faut aussi reconnaître que la Science politique elle-même est jeune et cherche parfois encore sa place entre les disciplines majeures dont elle est issue : le droit, la sociologie, la philosophie et l’histoire comme laboratoire. Pour exister en tant que discipline, la science politique s’est structurée autour de l’étude du pouvoir et surtout de l’État. Or l’accent mis sur l’État et sa construction repose sur l’axiome de la centralité de la violence, de son efficacité au moins sur le court ou moyen terme, de l’importance de son monopole etc. L’étude de processus sciemment non-violents reste donc marginale dans la discipline.

En science politique, la non-violence est donc abordée à la marge, de biais, à travers des reformulations ou des concepts plus précis ou spécialisés. Quand on en parle, l’accent est mis sur certaines dimensions : la grève de la faim, la résistance civile, l’histoire de Martin Luther King ou du Tibet. Si l’on trouve d’excellentes études philosophiques, historiques ou sociologiques, il n’existe pas à ce jour d’anthologie francophone combinant textes historiques, analyses scientifiques et cas d’études. Plus rares encore sont les livres associant lectures et réflexions à des exercices, voire à des méditations. Cette absence s’entend car il est difficile pour tout chercheur de faire d’un concept transversal et qui porte la marque de l’utopie son objet de recherche et de transmission. Personne ne veut du label ‘rêveur’ et encore moins du label ‘activiste’ en Science politique. Ce sont des obstacles majeurs à toute quête d’insertion dans une communauté scientifique universitaire très compétitive.

Pourtant, en ce début de 21ième siècle, nous avons de bonnes raisons d’étudier sérieusement la non-violence et son rapport au politique. La cohérence théorique du concept, tel que formulé par ses précurseurs et concepteurs (tels La Boétie, Gandhi, Havel, Sharp ou encore Suu Kyi) est remarquable. Par ailleurs, c’est une des forces historiques les plus puissantes que nous ayons connues depuis plus un siècle (Semelin 2011, Chenoweth et Stephan 2011). De plus, la non-violence a été utilisée sous de multiples formes et dans des contextes très variés avec des conséquences très variables (Roberts et Ash, 2011). Elle n’est ni de l’est, ni de l’ouest, ni spécifiquement du nord ou particulièrement du sud ; elle a été utilisée tant par des hommes que par des femmes, par les pauvres comme par les riches. Elle est au cœur de certains des moments les plus inspirants de l’histoire du monde tels le mouvement Greenbelt, la chute du mur de Berlin ou celle de Milosevic en Serbie en 2000. Mais si le concept est puissant, il est aussi complexe et, trop simplifié, peut participer de catastrophes humaines comme récemment au Yémen ou en Syrie. C’est donc une approche de la vie politique qui mérite discussions, études et réflexion. Et ce d’autant plus que l’idée fascine et qu’il est donc important de la démythifier. Contrairement à l’image d’Épinal que l’on en a parfois, l’indépendance de l’Inde a été un été un événement d’une brutalité extrême.

Il est souvent rétorqué que le terme non-violence, défini négativement, ne peut être un objet d’étude scientifique cohérent. Mais tous les grands concepts politiques, de la violence à la démocratie en passant par le pouvoir sont complexes et difficile à cerner. Leurs définitions et domaines d’application restent âprement débattus. Certains même portent en eux une part de rêve (démocratie, égalité, liberté) qui les rend plus complexes encore et parfois explosifs de par leur puissance d’appel. Ceci n’empêche ni les colloques, ni les publications scientifiques, bien au contraire. Si l’on prend le temps d’enseigner les concepts utopiques de liberté ou de démocratie, il n’y a pas de raison scientifique valable d’ignorer le terme non-violence. Et comprendre les utopies sociales, c’est essentiel. Spinoza le soulignait, nous vivons de peur et d’espoir et les deux sont indissociables. Or nous prenons le temps d’enseigner la guerre, d’étudier de près les cycles de la peur, mais nous négligeons trop souvent les logiques de l’espoir.

La non-violence, même si elle se pose négativement, même si elle relève de l’horizon, est un mot au cœur de la vie dans la cité, au même titre que violence, démocratie, anarchisme, indépendance, autonomie, révolution etc. Cet ouvrage poursuit l’intuition qu’elle est un concept encore méconnu mais à-venir. Les auteurs font également le pari de ne pas perdre l’équilibre entre exigences analytique et synthétique, entre théorie et pratique, entre les disciplines et les auteurs. Son ambition est de tracer et de proposer des chemins pédagogiques qui allient les narrations des acteurs à celles des analystes et, par là, d’encourager le lecteur dans la recherche de ses propres voies (ou voix!). Il s’agit d’écouter les leaders sans les mythifier afin de mieux saisir les échos qu’ils provoquent dans l’histoire. Il s’agit mettre en contexte des cas d’étude, sans pour autant les mettre en boite. Bref, il s’agit d’analyser sans dépecer, d’aborder le sujet avec curiosité, intérêt, bienveillance mais sans complaisance.

Comme l’indique le schéma ci-contre, ce livre sera circulaire dans le sens où il peut être commencé presque n’importe où, à chacun des quatre thèmes d’étude : principes, histoires, personnes et actions, thèmes qui renvoient les uns aux autres. L’ouvrage sera également circulaire dans le sens ou chaque sujet est abordé en un chemin fait de lectures et de réflexions, d’études de cas, et d’exercices appelant de nouvelles lectures. En un sens, si l’ouvrage part des textes, c’est à l’aide de différents exercices et cas d’études que ces derniers prennent sens et que la connaissance peut s’approfondir. Les exercices font donc partie intégrante des parcours pédagogiques proposés; les références et suggestions ouvrent des portes vers de nouvelles pistes de recherche et permettent de s’orienter dans une mer de ressources en ligne très dispersées. Cette anthologie offre ainsi une dynamique pédagogique souple reposant sur l’idée que l’on apprend pas de la même manière par la répétition et par l’expérience, dans un cours et dans un café, en petit groupe sur un projet ou seul face à une citation, mais que tous ces chemins sont complémentaires.

Plan provisionnel de l’ouvrage

Ce livre est une anthologie en 4 parties, 4 espaces d’interaction entre non-violence et politique :

1) Principes (De quoi parle-t-on ?)

2) Histoires (Quand ? Quelles circonstances ? Quels contextes ?)

3) Personnes (Qui ? Quels groupes ? Quelles identités ? Quelles relations ?)

4) Actions (Comment ? Quels processus ? Quelles stratégies ? Quelles techniques et quelles limites ?)

Ces quatre espaces correspondent aux regards et catégories d’analyse proposés par les disciplines sous-jacentes de la science politique : philosophie, histoire, sociologie, droit/administration publique. Mais, au-delà des disciplines, il s’agit également de croiser les perspectives en mettant des textes d’acteurs et d’analystes en dialogue (tout en respectant les ordres de publication pour ouvrir à des analyses intertextuelles) et en les confrontant à du réel (à travers quelques cas d’études).

Interview: Kathleen Fitzpatrick on Open Scholarship, Humanities Commons, and more.

We are thrilled to feature this interview with Kathleen Fitzpatrick as the second installment in our new interview series—in which we ask researchers and librarians about their work in, and thinking about, open access in media studies. Fitzpatrick hardly needs an introduction, given her seminal role in a variety of open access and scholarly communication projects. Last year she joined Michigan State as Director of Digital Humanities and Professor of English. Before, she served as Director of Scholarly Communication of the Modern Language Association, where she helped shepherd the open access, open source network Humanities Commons. She co-founded the innovative scholarly communication initiative MediaCommons, and is author of Planned Obsolescence (2011) and The Anxiety of Obsolescence (2006). Follow her thoughts at @kfitz and her website.

OAMS: For years you have been an active participant in the movement for open scholarship. With all your work for MLA Commons, Media Commons and now Humanities Commons—and writings like Planned Obsolescence—you’ve made a tremendous contribution to the debate on how we should move to openness in the humanities. Despite those efforts, it’s arguably true that the transition to open access in the humanities is taking longer than we want. What do you think are the main barriers and challenges for the humanities and the route toward open access in the next five years? 

KF: There are a number of different challenges, and I worry that one has not only absorbed most of our focus but in fact distracted us from the far greater importance of the others. That one that has loomed so large is sustainability — or, perhaps more accurately, business model: how to make open-access publishing financially viable. For not-for-profit publishers like many scholarly societies and university presses, this remains a pressing issue; they simply cannot pay the professionals required to do the work and continue to break even, given the actual availability of article- and book-processing fees in the humanities and social sciences. There are organizations in the U.S. that are working on new approaches to this problem, including a coalition formed by the Association of American Universities, the Association of Research Libraries, and the Association of University Presses, but the challenge remains.

But this question of business model winds up overshadowing at least two other challenges to the widespread adoption of open access in the humanities that I tend to think are vastly more important. In focusing on the sustainability of the publishing process, we run the risk of overlooking the question of its equity: do all scholars, in all fields, at all kinds of institutions, in all areas of the world, have the same ability to publish? For some fairly obvious reasons, the early emphasis of the open access movement was on equity in consumption, ensuring that any interested reader or researcher could get ahold of work that they might learn from. But having learned from that work, can those readers and researchers now contribute to these conversations? True equity requires us to think about ways of opening up the entirety of the scholarly conversation to all participants, wherever in the world they are, wherever they work.

And the other challenge may be even more daunting: ensuring that publishing in open-access venues is a researcher priority. This one is all about ensuring that academic practices are in line with the best of academic values, and it involves both changing individual researcher behavior and changing the institutional reward systems that underpin it. And neither is easy, but both are crucial. The deepest goals of open access simply cannot be reached without those transformations, and all our concerns with how we’re going to pay for it—which are real and substantial, don’t get me wrong — don’t begin to make a dent in these larger questions of equity and values.

OAMS: What are your thoughts about the current model of humanities publishing, particularly monographs? What, in your view, needs to change in the university system, academic publishing, or both, to quicken the transition to open access?

KF: So, this might sound a bit as though it contradicts the answer to the last question, but one of the things that needs to change is the economic model under which university press publishing operates. University presses, at least in the United States, were originally founded in order to distribute the work done at their institutions, precisely because it was apparent that there was no market for that work within conventional publishing channels. These campus-based presses shared the work they published with institutions around the country, knowing that other presses would do the same. But over the course of the twentieth century, university presses professionalized; they saw that there was revenue to be earned from at least some of the titles they published, and they argued with their institutions that such revenue should be returned to the press to support its operations. In other words, they turned themselves into businesses operating on university campuses, and the expectation that they would be self-supporting quickly grew.

The university press, in other words, needs to be understood as providing a service to the intellectual community rather than as a revenue center.

If we are to transform monograph publishing, we have to begin with a reconsideration of the university’s responsibility for the dissemination of the scholarship that is produced by its faculty, as well as the importance for the integrity of the scholarship itself that it be permitted to develop outside of market pressures. The university press, in other words, needs to be understood as providing a service to the intellectual community rather than as a revenue center.

But I think there’s another change that has more to do with the ways that the university values and rewards the products of scholarly research, and this change has two components, neither of which can take place without the other. One component is that scholars need to consider whether everything that they’re currently producing in book-form really needs to be a book; perhaps there are other ways of cultivating the audience for research that might in many cases be more productive and less subject to the constraints of book publishing’s current economic model. And the other component is that institutions need to transform their systems of evaluation — particularly what in the U.S. manifest as policies and procedures for tenure and promotion reviews — to recognize that highly important scholarship can be produced in a wide variety of forms, and thus to stop overvaluing that one particular form. Those two changes have to happen hand-in-hand: scholars won’t change their ways of working unless they’re convinced that their institutions will appropriately value work produced in new ways, and institutions see no call to transform their evaluation systems unless their faculty members are demanding such transformation.

OAMS: Academic libraries and librarians have taken a more active role in scholarly communication, through subsidies and even in-house publishing. What role do you see libraries playing in a future, more open publishing ecosystem?

KF: I’ve long argued that libraries have a key role to play in the transitions that I describe above, not least because of their position in knowledge development and dissemination within universities. The conventionally understood library has long gathered the world’s knowledge for use by researchers and students on campus, but as the processes of research and scholarly communication become increasingly intertwined, libraries become hubs for a range of knowledge-development activities rather than just the repositories of information they’re often imagined to be.

The library is ideally positioned not just to bring the world’s knowledge to campus, but to bring the campus’s knowledge to the world.

As a result, the library is ideally positioned not just to bring the world’s knowledge to campus, but to bring the campus’s knowledge to the world. And we see that happening more and more,  both with a range of library-centered publishing initiatives as well as with the growing number of university presses that bear some organizational relationship to university libraries. Those relationships are key, I think, as presses can bring some crucial experience to library publishing initiatives — not least the development of publications and the building of audiences — but libraries likewise bring crucial skills and commitments to presses. And key among those is a commitment to the public good.

OAMS: Some recent scholarly-publishing initiatives have stressed that they are “scholar-run”, or have some formalized input from scholars beyond the review process. How important is the active involvement of scholars in humanities publishing going forward?

KF: I strongly believe that such active involvement is crucial to scholarly communication in the humanities, both to ensure that the venues and platforms through which we publish take scholars’ own values as their motivating forces, and to ensure that scholars take full responsibility for the ways that their work circulates in the world. That involvement might take a range of different forms, some more hands-on than others, but governance is crucial: scholars should not be willing to hand over their work to organizations whose business practices aren’t operating in the general interest of the scholarly community, and the best way of ensuring that alignment is participating in the governance of those organizations.

OAMS: Humanities Commons has positioned itself as a nonprofit alternative to the venture funded academic social networks like ResearchGate and Academia.edu. Is HC gaining purchase in the humanities? Are there plans to expand the network/repository beyond the humanities disciplines? What would success look like for HC and other nonprofit initiatives like ScholarlyHub?

giftcard_image-300x157KF: Humanities Commons is indeed gaining purchase, as scholars are increasingly recognizing that while their accounts on for-profit networks might be “free,” there are hidden costs to the academic community as a whole. These networks are not transparent in their operations or their values, and they often have egregious, predatory data-sharing and intellectual property policies written into their terms of service.

Humanities Commons is governed by its member societies, which are in turn governed by their members, and so the network and its policies are answerable to scholars and their interests.

Humanities Commons is governed by its member societies, which are in turn governed by their members, and so the network and its policies are answerable to scholars and their interests. And we have since the beginning prioritized transparency in our policies on privacy and intellectual property. Not to mention that Humanities Commons provides many other benefits as well! So many humanities scholars have recently moved away from those other networks to join us, and are encouraging their colleagues to do so as well.

We started the network with a focus on the humanities primarily because humanities fields have long been underserved by new platforms for scholarly communication. But that focus was also strategic: it’s hard to build an engaged community by simply throwing open the doors and inviting everyone. I recognize that this is a somewhat risky example right now, but people often forget that Facebook didn’t begin in a completely open fashion, but instead built local networks that were restricted to particular college campuses; students were motivated to join because their accounts enabled them to reach people they already wanted to communicate with. As more people got on board, those smaller circles were connected, and then once there was a critical mass of participation, the entire thing was opened up to everyone.

We don’t want to be Facebook, by any stretch—see what I said before about transparency, privacy, and so forth—but we recognize the importance of beginning a network by linking known communities, and then by interconnecting those communities and enabling them to open outward. We began our work with scholarly societies, because the members of those societies are already engaged in working together; we then opened up to the humanities as a whole, because humanities scholars are motivated to share their work with one another. We’d like to reach beyond the humanities, to connect the humanities with the social sciences and the sciences, to enable researchers anywhere to reach their audiences through our platform — but we recognize the importance of starting with existing communities of practice, and supporting them as fully as possible as they grow.

OAMS: In recent years, the broader open scholarship community has taken up the “open data” cause. Do you see the the notion of data—sometimes characterized as discrete, quantitative, and machine-readable—as inclusive of humanities scholarship?

KF: The notion of data is not one that a fair number of humanities scholars recognize themselves in, particularly when the quantitative is included in the definition, and yet when we expand our notion of data to encompass any information gathered in the research process, the relationship starts to become apparent. Understanding research data as including the primary and secondary texts we study and the excerpts we glean from and images we record of them, the notes we gather in field research, the transcripts of interviews, the responses to surveys—all of this begins to make evident the importance of preserving and (subject to proper privacy protocols) making humanities data as openly available as possible.

OAMS: What role, if any, should the bundle of fields that study media and communication play in the open access discussion?

KF: Personally, I’d argue that these fields need to be leading the way. If the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. presidential election has revealed nothing else, it’s definitely made clear the vital public importance of research and scholarship examining the channels and platforms through which we communicate today. But we have to make the work as publicly accessible as possible if it’s going to have the impact we all need. Engaging the public directly in thinking critically about the impact of the media in our daily lives will require more of us — starting real conversations, listening to people’s concerns, participating in collaborative projects—but making the work we’re already doing openly available is a crucial place to start.


This interview was conducted together with Jeff Pooley.

Image header: courtesy of Kathleen Fitzpatrick

Du soleil pour tous. L’énergie solaire au Sénégal: un droit, des droits, une histoire

Auteur : Sous la direction de Frédéric Caille

Date de parution : 19 avril 2018

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

L’énergie solaire est une promesse de développement et de prospérité pour l’Afrique. Elle a été annoncée et expérimentée sur le continent dans un esprit de science ouverte et de « communs » technologiques et énergétiques il y a déjà près de soixante ans. Séchoirs et chauffe-eaux, pompes solaires et centrales électriques thermodynamiques : des pionniers ont développé et installé, dès la fin des années 1950, des techniques et des matériels en Afrique de l’Ouest et en particulier au Sénégal.

Le présent ouvrage, issu de deux journées d’études organisées à Dakar en mai 2016, rend compte pour la première fois, de manière particulièrement symbolique, de cette histoire et du futur de l’énergie solaire en Afrique. Il rassemble, dans une première partie, des témoignages d’acteurs et une mise en perspective sociohistorique large des politiques de l’énergie solaire en Afrique de l’Ouest sur un demi-siècle. Ce regard est complété par la réédition d’un texte de référence du professeur Abdou Moumouni Dioffo, pionnier nigérien de l’énergie solaire dès 1964.

Dans une seconde partie, cet ouvrage interroge également les prolongements actuels de l’énergie solaire en France et au Sénégal, en particulier son encadrement juridique et réglementaire. L’énergie solaire peut-elle ou doit-elle être considérée comme un « commun » ou un droit humain fondamental? Quels sont aujourd’hui les droits associés à l’énergie solaire au Sénégal? Quels enseignements tirer d’une comparaison avec le corpus juridique en la matière tel qu’il existe en France?

Associant juristes français et sénégalais, et spécialistes de la sociologie et des politiques de l’énergie, cet ouvrage se veut au final une invitation et un outil pour poursuivre les recherches sur l’histoire et le droit de l’énergie solaire en Afrique.

Illustration de couverture : design de Kate McDonnell, photographie d’Alexandre Mouthon

Imprimé à Chambéry, Dakar et Québec, 1er trimestre 2018, ce livre est sous licence Creative Commons CC-BY 4-0.

  • ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-34-5
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : 978-2-924661-38-3

Pour acheter une version imprimée du livre en France ou au Canada par chèque ou virement bancaire : écrire à inf0@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Pour le commander en ligne (des frais de port de 9 $ s’ajouteront) :

The Radical Open Access Collective: Community, Resilience, Collaboration

An Open Insights interview with Janneke Adema and Sam Moore

Reblogged from: https://www.openlibhums.org/news/278/

Interviewed by James Smith (OLH)


Janneke Adema and Sam Moore are the authors of a March 2018 UKSG Insights essay entitled Collectivity and collaboration: imagining new forms of communality to create resilience in scholar-led publishing. Today we explore the context behind the Radical Open Access Collective (ROAC), and their thoughts on the complexities of scholar-led open access publishing.

The ROAC is holding the Radical Open Access II – The Ethics of Care conference at Coventry University from 26-27 June 2018.


OLH: Hi Janneke and Sam, thanks for talking to us! To start, how would you summarise the core philosophy of the ROAC?

JA & SM: Thanks for the invitation! We feel that the core philosophy behind the collective is about returning control of publishing to the scholarly community. While the member presses do not represent a unified or homogeneous set of values or practices, they are each interested in practicing a vision of open access that is accountable to (and reflective of) their various communities. This affords experimentation, critique, collaboration and a range of other practices that traditional publishing currently prohibits to a lesser or greater extent. The collective ultimately hopes to offer a mutually supportive, non-hierarchical environment for exploring the futures of open publishing practices.

The collective ultimately hopes to offer a mutually supportive, non-hierarchical environment for exploring the futures of open publishing practices.

Taking this into consideration, some keywords that come to mind with respect to the ROAC’s philosophy are: collaboration, non-competitive, not-for-profit, horizontal (non-hierarchical), scholar-led, ethics of care, diversity, community, experimenting, global justice, affirmative creative critique, performative, progressive, radical, mutually-supportive, mutual reliance, multi-polar, resilience, communality, inclusivity.

OLH: What ethical principles does the ROAC seek to normalise, and what challenges does it face in doing so?

JA & SM: We are not sure “normalise” is the right word here, given the implicit normativity this word brings with it. Ethics, many of us feel, is not something that can be defined in advance or that can be predetermined, we cannot resort to moral criteria or predefined values or truths when it comes to publishing, scholarly communication or openness, for example. A responsible ethical approach to openness, to publishing, to the book, would not presume to know what these are, nore what ethics is, in advance. If anything we feel ethics is, or should be, non-normative: its meaning cannot be predetermined. We also do not follow any set “principles” in this respect; however, our ethics is not relativistic either; instead it responds to specific singular practices and situations, around how openness is implemented and the materiality of the book changes, for example. Our ethics are therefore performative, they arise out of the way we (as scholars, publishers) become with the media we publish.

OLH: Why is being radical a good thing?

JA & SM: Being radical is neither good nor bad, it is a terminology we have adapted to distinguish the specific version of open access we want to promote from more neoliberal or top-down versions, for example. The etymology of “radical” shows it derives from the Latin radix, for root, where it means going back to the origin, to what is essential. For us, radical open access simply represents what we always perceived open access to be, it is a way for us to position ourselves within the wide diversity of meanings open access represents and conjures up.

The etymology of “radical” shows it derives from the Latin radix, for root, where it means going back to the origin, to what is essential.

Being radical does however offer us the chance to present an affirmative counterpoint to the dominant discourses around open access, particularly those promoted by commercial publishers and governmental funders—such as HEFCE and RCUK (now UKRI) in the UK—who tend to be interested in OA inasmuch as it promotes business, transparency, and innovation or merely protects the interests of commercial publishers (see the Finch report, for example). This is how the average humanities and social sciences researcher is likely to encounter OA—as merely representative of a neoliberal ideology and a top down instrumental requirement—and so the ROAC seeks to illustrate that there is an alternative and that OA can have a basis in something both emancipatory and transformative.

OLH: The ROAC is an advocacy group, but it is also a community-builder. How does a strong community translate into a response to the pressing issues of open access?

JA & SM: Because it offers us the opportunity to scale-up or as we have previously argued, to “scale small”—keeping the diversity and independence of the (often small-scale) endeavours of our members intact—both horizontally and vertically. By harnessing the strengths and organizational structures of not-for-profit, independent and scholar-led publishing communities we hope to further facilitate collective efforts through community building and by setting up horizontal alliances. Next to that we hope to enable vertical forms of collaboration with other organisations, collectives, institutions and agencies within scholarly publishing, for example libraries and universities, but also with collectives of artists, technologists and activists. As we have argued elsewhere, we want to explore how we can set up so-called “chains of equivalence” (Laclau) with other movements and struggles that are also dealing with aspects of openness – not just those associated with open knowledge, open science, open data, altmetrics and so on, but also those areas in the Arts and Humanities that conceive digital media more explicitly in terms of power, conflict and violence. Those associated with critical media theory, p2p networks and shadow libraries, for example. We are interested in exploring a plurality of open movements, theories and philosophies in this respect, which may at times conflict and contradict one another, but which can nevertheless contribute to the construction of a common, oppositional horizon.

By harnessing the strengths and organizational structures of not-for-profit, independent and scholar-led publishing communities we hope to further facilitate collective efforts through community building and by setting up horizontal alliances.

In this respect the ROAC also intends to present a unified voice in response to certain issues of advocacy and policy. Having a strong community allows us to discuss and respond to various issues around publishing and openness, around how open access is being implemented for example, highlighting why funders should take alternative, scholar-led publishing initiatives seriously as part of this discussion. Think for example of the recently announced intention of the UKRI in the UK to have a mandatory OA monograph component to the REF after the next. This could present a threat by commercialising and formalising a particularly kind of OA monograph practice in the same way that the current REF policy has done for journal articles (including for example the adaptation of (high) BPCs for monographs, which are unsustainable), which is to say, in accordance with the wishes of commercial publishers. This has already summoned conservative reactions from organisations such as the Royal Historical Society, positioning themselves against this development. Yet, such funder requirement for OA books could also potentially present an opportunity for many presses within the ROAC who already publish OA monographs (such as ROAC members punctum books, Open Book Publishers, and Mattering Press, for example) as well as for scholars looking for options to publish their books in OA without (excessive) BPCs. Making both funders and scholars aware of the existence of these scholar-led models for publishing open access books is of the highest importance here. This is where we would see the ROAC coming in.

OLH: How do you imagine the role of radical experimentation as a tool for humanities open access?

JA & SM: Many of the ROAC member presses would understand the relationship the other way round, that openness affords experimentation and is the reason many OA projects adopt an open approach to begin with. This means that openness is often foundational to radical projects, a natural way of working that permits different kinds of experimentation in certain contexts. Openness is thus not about being more open, for instance, but is rather about being open to change and experimentation—depending on the contingent circumstances, the political and ethical decisions and cuts that need to be made, and so on.

… [B]y experimenting in an open way with the idea and the concept of the book, but also with the materiality and the system of material production surrounding it—which includes our ideas of the material and materiality—we can ask important questions concerning authorship, the fixity of the text, quality, authority and responsibility; issues that lie at the basis of what scholarship is and what the functions of the university should be.

This is why, in foregrounding experimentation, the ROAC reflects a range of practices and ideologies, rather than a single, coherent movement for making research freely available. Experimentation in this respect can be seen as a form of ongoing critique, serving as a means to re-perform our existing institutions and scholarly practices in a more ethical and responsible way. Experimentation thus stands at the basis of a rethinking of scholarly communication and the university in general, and can even potentially be seen as a means to rethink politics itself too. For instance, by experimenting in an open way with the idea and the concept of the book, but also with the materiality and the system of material production surrounding it—which includes our ideas of the material and materiality—we can ask important questions concerning authorship, the fixity of the text, quality, authority and responsibility; issues that lie at the basis of what scholarship is and what the functions of the university should be.

OLH: How does a radical approach to open access empower researchers in the Global South, and those outside of traditional institutional frameworks?

JA & SM: We would rather emphasise the opposite: it is researchers in the Global South and those outside or on the fringes of institutions (so-called para-academics) that empower the open access movement and scholarly publishing more in general. Dominique Babini has for example stressed that “the international community would do well to follow the examples of initiatives in Latin America, where open access is already the norm and where costs are shared among members of scholarly communities to ensure lasting impact”. In Latin America, Babini points out, the cost of publishing has always been an integral part of the cost of research, where it is universities and academic societies, not commercial publishers that predominantly publish journals and books. There is also the example of sustainable publishing platforms and models developed here, based on cost sharing, in opposition to the commercial enclosures APCs impose for example. Think of portals such as SciELO and Redalyc, but also the organisation (and ROAC member) Babini represents,CLACSO, which brings together hundreds of research centres and graduate schools in the social sciences and humanities, predominantly in Latin American countries.

… [I]t is researchers in the Global South and those outside or on the fringes of institutions (so-called para-academics) that empower the open access movement and scholarly publishing more in general.

From the perspective of being outside of established structures, we also need to acknowledge the essential role shadow libraries and guerrilla open access play in providing access to research in a global context, where for example LibGen and Sci-Hub have achieved with relative ease what the open access movement has for decades been striving for: quick and easy and near universal access to the results of scholarly research.

OLH: Open source tools and open access publishing are intertwined. What needs to be free and open for smaller initiatives to thrive?

JA & SM: If possible the entire production process (open that is, nothing is free), although we appreciate we will always be implicated in commercial, profit-driven, proprietary structures, platforms and models to some extent. It is about making strategic choices on the basis of what we, or better said, the ROAC’s members, think is important. Sometimes this means using proprietary software, sometimes it includes publishing in a closed way. There are no pre-set answers or guidelines here, although there are now many open-source options for scholar-publishers to choose from. Future work of the ROAC will be, based on the information portal we have already set up, to further collate many of these options and to develop a toolkit of advice so that other communities can start their own publishing projects too.

In many ways we’re heading in the wrong direction with increased control of the means of production by large corporate entities.

That said, the current push for centrally-controlled walled gardens, such as those being developed by Elsevier (see e.g. this article by Posada and Chen) and Springer-Nature, is very disturbing. Publishers now seek to lock users into their ecosystems, monetising not just user intellectual property but their interaction data too. In many ways we’re heading in the wrong direction with increased control of the means of production by large corporate entities. A perhaps missed opportunity to counteract this is the recent tender call for the European Commission Open Research Publishing Platformthat does not specifically require open infrastructure to protect against corporate capture.

Nonetheless, instead of centralised and one-size-fits all publishing platforms, we would like to emphasise the value of decentralised ecosystems of small open source publishing projects, where platforms are often based on implementing a specific model or solution aimed to solve the crisis in academic publishing. This kind of imposed uniformity could lead to a loss of control of certain aspects of the publishing process and threaten the independence and individuality of small experimental projects. This is why the ROAC intends to complement library-based and university press publishing projects that share a more decentralised vision, and urges funders to support a biodiversity of publishing projects and models.

OLH: What are your views on volunteerist labour in publishing? Is this something for which people should always be paid or is unpaid publishing work acceptable?

JA & SM: Our feeling is that academic publishing is already sustained by (and couldn’t exist without) large amounts of volunteer labour contributed by academic editors, reviewers, copyeditors and interns. Presses in the ROAC simply divert some of this labour from commercial publishing (and encourages other academics to do the same) towards something more transformative, that is truly in the communities interest as well as community-owned and controlled. Yet labour is not a zero-sum game and will be always be a site of struggle between individual commitments as part of the traditional publishing industry, due to the prestige this confers, and collective commitments to transforming this system through experimentation into alternatives. Ultimately we want to make the appeal that publishing should be valued as both an integral aspect of research and something for which scholars should be paid as part of their academic positions.

Ultimately we want to make the appeal that publishing should be valued as both an integral aspect of research and something for which scholars should be paid as part of their academic positions.

That said, many of our initiatives are currently committed to paying their designers, typesetters and proofreaders, interns, or other people they do work with, fairly (whilst they often don’t receive a wage themselves). On the other hand, members of the ROAC have also been critical of applying a market logic or a logic of calculation to all the relationships within research and communication. There are different ways than mere monetary ones in which we can recognise the contributions of the various agencies involved in the publishing process.

The ROAC also aims to decrease the amount of volunteer labour in publishing to some extent by enabling scholar-led and not-for-profit projects to work closer together and to encourage them to, as a community, share amongst themselves, tools, best practices and information that might aid with working more efficiently, including information on how to obtain funds and grants to subsidise publishing projects. To encourage this, we have set up the Radical Open Access mailing list, which we use to discuss issues around the politics and ethics of publishing, and to share best practices and strategies amongst each other.

OLH: Thanks for sharing your thoughts with us, Janneke and Sam!

Join us again soon for more #EmpowOA Open Insights.

Registration for Radical Open Access II – The Ethics of Care now open

Radical Open Access II – The Ethics of Care


Two days of critical discussion about creating a more diverse and equitable future for open access

The Post Office
Coventry University
June 26-27 2018 

Organised by Coventry University’s postdigital arts and humanities research studio The Post Office, a project of the Centre for Postdigital Cultures

Find out more at: http://radicaloa.co.uk/conferences/roa2/

Attendance and participation is free of charge but registration is mandatory. Register here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/radical-open-access-ii-the-ethics-of-care-tickets-44796943865


Co-curators: Culture Machine, Mattering Press, Memory of the World/Public Library, meson press, Open Humanities Press, punctum books, POP

Speakers: Denisse Albornoz, Janneke Adema, Laurie Allen, Angel Octavio Alvarez Solís, Bodó Balázs, Kirsten Bell, George Chen, Jill Claassen, Joe Deville, Maddalena Fragnito, Valeria Graziano, Eileen Joy, Chris Kelty, Christopher Long, Kaja Marczewska, Frances McDonald, Gabriela Méndez-Cota, Samuel Moore, Tahani Nadim, Christopher Newfield, Sebastian Nordhoff, Lena Nyahodza, Alejandro Posada, Reggie Raju, Václav Štětka, Whitney Trettien


Radical Open Access II is about developing an ethics of care. Care with regard to:

  • our means of creating, publishing and communicating research;
  • our working conditions;
  • our relations with others.

Radical Open Access II aims to move the debate over open access on from two issues in particular:

THE QUESTION OF ACCESS. At first sight it may seem rather odd for a conference on open access to want to move on from this question. But as Sci-Hub, aaaarg, libgen et al. show, the debate over access has largely been won by shadow-libraries, who are providing quick and easy access to vast amounts of published research. Too much of the debate over ‘legitimate’ forms of open access now seems to be about how to use the provision of access to research as a means of exercising forms of governmental and commercial control (via audits, metrics, discourses of transparency and so on).

THE OA MOVEMENT’S RELUCTANCE TO ENGAGE RIGOROUSLY WITH THE KIND OF CONCERNS THAT ARE BEING DISCUSSED ELSEWHERE IN SOCIETY. This includes climate change, the environment, and the damage that humans are doing to the planet (i.e. the Anthropocene). But it also takes in debates over different forms:

  • of organising labour (e.g. platform cooperativism);
  • of working – such as those associated with ideas of post-work, the sharing and gig economies, and Universal Basic Income;
  • of being together – see the rise of interest in the Commons, and in experiments with horizontalist, leaderless ways of self-organizing such as those associated with the Occupy, Black Lives Matter, and the Dakota Standing Rock Sioux protests.

Background

In 2015 the inaugural international Radical Open Access Conference addressed an urgent question: how should we set about reclaiming open access from its corporate take-over, evident not least in the rise of A/BPC models based on the charging of exorbitant, unaffordable and unsustainable publishing fees from scholars and their institutions? The conference saw participants calling for the creation of new forms of communality, designed to support the building of commons-based open access publishing infrastructures, and promote a more diverse, not-for-profit eco-system of scholarly communication. With these calls in mind, the Radical Open Access Collective (ROAC) was formed immediately following the 2015 conference as a horizontal alliance between like-minded groups dedicated to the sharing of skills, tools and expertise. Since then it has grown to a community of over 40 scholar-led, not-for-profit presses, journals and other projects. The members of this alliance are all invested in reimaging publishing. And what’s more, are committed to doing so in a context where debates over access—which in many respects have been resolved by the emergence of shadow libraries such as Sci-Hub—are increasingly giving way to concerns over the commercial hegemony of academic publishing. So much so that the issue addressed by the 2015 conference—how can open access be taken back from its corporate take-over? —now seems more urgent than ever.

In June 2018, Coventry University’s postdigital arts and humanities research studio, The Post Office, will convene a second Radical Open Access conference, examining the ways in which open access is being rendered further complicit with neoliberalism’s audit culture of evaluation, measurement, impact and accountability. Witness the way open access has become a top-down requirement – quite literally a ‘mandate’ – rather than a bottom-up scholar-led movement for change. Taking as its theme The Ethics of Care, the concern of this second conference will be on moving away from those market-driven incentives that are frequently used to justify open access, to focus instead on the values that underpin many of the radical open access community’s experiments in open publishing and scholarly communication. In particular, it will follow the lead of Mattering Press, a founding member of the ROAC, in exploring how an ethics of care can help to counter the calculative logic that otherwise permeates academic publishing.

What would a commitment to more ethical forms of publishing look like? Would such an ethics of care highlight the importance of:

  • Making publishing more diverse and equitable – geographically, but also with respect to issues of class, race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality?
  • Nurturing new and historically under-represented cultures of knowledge – those associated with early career, precariously employed and para-academics, or located outside the global North and West?
  • Ensuring everyone is able to have a voice – not least those writing on niche or avant-garde topics or who are conducting hybrid, multimodal, post-literary forms of research, and who are currently underserved by our profit-focused commercial publishing system?

Indeed, for many members of the ROAC, a commitment to ethics entails understanding publishing very much as a complex, multi-agential, relational practice, and thus recognising that we have a responsibility to all those involved in the publishing process. Caring for the relationships involved throughout this process is essential, from rewarding or otherwise acknowledging people fairly for their labour, wherever possible, to redirecting our volunteer efforts away from commercial profit-driven entities in favour of supporting more progressive not-for-profit forms of publishing. But it also includes taking care of the nonhuman: not just the published object itself, but all those animals, plants and minerals that help to make up the scholarly communication eco-system.

Radical Open Access II is community-driven, and is being co-organised and co-curated by various members of the ROAC in a collaborative manner. It includes panels on topics as diverse as: Predatory Publishing; The Geopolitics of Open; Competition and Cooperation; Humane Metrics/Metrics Noir; Guerrilla Open Access; The Poethics of Scholarship; and Care for the Commons. The conference is free to attend and will also be live streamed for those who are unable to be there in person.

Appel : La responsabilité sociétale des organisations et des entreprises en Afrique francophone

Le Sahel

Projet d’un ouvrage collectif sous la direction de Victorine Ghislaine NZINO MUNONGO, chercheuse au Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation, Cameroun, Martial JEUGUE DOUNGUE, PhD, Chercheur-Enseignant, L. Christelle BELPORO, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada et Hermann NANAN LEKOGMO, PhD, Université Catholique d’Afrique Centrale (UCAC-APDHAC)

Parution prévue : décembre 2018

Argumentaire

Considérant, d’une part, le village global actuel en construction dans lequel sont appelées à interagir plusieurs parties prenantes vers la concrétisation d’un destin commun et, d’autre part, le souci de préservation des ressources locales, il émerge la nécessité d’une implémentation plus concrète du principe d’intégration. Les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) furent ainsi adoptés avec comme objectif, d’ici 2030, d’éliminer la pauvreté sous toutes ses formes par la promotion d’une industrialisation durable qui profite à tous et encourage l’innovation et la recherche et d’encourager les grandes entreprises et les sociétés transnationales à adopter et intégrer des pratiques viables. La visée essentielle des objectifs fixés est la création d’emplois, l’augmentation de la richesse locale par le Produit intérieur brut (PIB) et une utilisation plus rationnelle des ressources par l’usage de technologies et procédés industriels propres, socialement inclusifs et respectueux de l’environnement.

Le contexte économique actuel en Afrique subsaharienne est confronté à plusieurs défis :

  1. Une explosion démographique estimée à 1,1 milliards d’habitants avec une projection de 2,4 milliards en 2050[1], ce qui représente un tiers de la population mondiale. Par ailleurs, 60% de la population africaine a moins de 35 ans[2] et est constituée de jeunes avides de biens et de consommation.
  2. Une urbanisation qui se fait à grande vitesse en termes d’occupation d’espace par les populations : les statistiques font mention de 472 millions d’habitants vivant en zone urbaine et le double de ce chiffre d’ici les vingt-cinq prochaines années[3]. Ces chiffres dénotent l’existence d’une concentration graduelle non négligeable de la demande et l’offre des biens et services en zone urbaine et partant une économie croissante dont les prévisions sont fixées à 2,6% en 2017[4]. Selon la Banque mondiale, cette croissance est ralentie par le déficit des infrastructures, ce qui a pour impact de limiter la productivité des entreprises jusqu’à 40%[5].
  3. Un manque assez flagrant d’infrastructures. Il y a par conséquent un besoin vital d’investir massivement pour la construction des espaces viables pouvant accueillir cette population croissante et répondre aux attentes des entreprises. Toutefois, la facture de ces opérations sera sans doute assez salée. Selon les experts financiers, le besoin d’investissements dans la construction des infrastructures en Afrique s’évaluent à la hauteur de 93 milliards de Dollars par an[6]. Dans un environnement où 43 % de la population totale vit en dessous du seuil de pauvreté[7], l’enjeu est non seulement celui de poser les jalons d’une économie dite inclusive mais également un système de production, de vente et de consommation qui respecte la dignité humaine tout en préservant l’environnement. D’où la référence faite à la Responsabilité Sociétale des Entreprises/Organisations.

Selon Bambara et ses collègues, la Responsabilité sociale des organisations (RSO) s’appréhende comme étant la « responsabilité d’une organisation vis-à-vis des impacts de ses décisions et de ses activités sur la société et sur l’environnement, se traduisant par un comportement transparent et éthique qui contribue au développement durable y compris à la santé des personnes et au bien-être de la société, prend en compte les attentes des parties prenantes, respecte les lois en vigueur et est compatible avec les normes internationales et est intégré dans l’ensemble de l’organisation et mis en œuvre dans ses relations »[8]. Par ailleurs, selon l’Organisation internationale du travail (OIT), la Responsabilité sociétale des entreprises/organisations (RSE) traduit «… la façon dont les entreprises prennent en considération les effets de leurs activités sur la société et affirment leurs principes et leurs valeurs tant dans l’application de leurs méthodes et procédés internes que dans leurs relations avec d’autres acteurs »[9]. La définition énoncée par l’OIT aborde l’approche sociologique de la RSE qui présente ce concept « …comme une question de régulation sociale faisant intervenir, derrière l’institution que constitue l’entreprise, des acteurs sociaux en conflit »[10]. Désormais, comme le diraient Mc William et Siegel, il est question de considérer la RSE « … comme des actions permettant d’améliorer le bien-être social au-delà des intérêts de la firme et de ce qui est requis par la loi»[11]. Cette présentation du concept énonce de manière globale l’enjeu de l’insertion d’une RSE/RSO au sein d’une société.

L’encadrement juridico-politique de la RSE/RSO en Afrique est un véritable défi. Si la perception qu’ont les États de cet outil est nuancée, il en est de même de sa perception par les entreprises. Les outils de gestion et de mise en place d’une RSE/RSO dans les pays et les entreprises d’Afrique méritent d’être analysés afin de comprendre et de traduire la portée de la RSE/RSO en Afrique subsaharienne. Malgré le caractère innovateur du concept occidental qu’est la RSE/RSO en Afrique et l’appréhension changeante de ce dernier en fonction des réalités sociales, il existe des approches d’implémentation qui positionnent les entreprises en acteurs ayant pour responsabilité de contribuer à l’éradication de la pauvreté.

Cet ouvrage a pour objectif d’aborder les réponses offertes par la RSE/RSO en Afrique subsaharienne sous le prisme des différents défis auxquels cette dernière est confrontée. Nous souhaitons mieux comprendre les échanges d’influence existant entre ce concept et l’environnement africain subsaharien, autrement dit, analyser l’apport de la RSE/RSO en milieu africain subsaharien et en retour, les mutations subies par ce concept du fait de son adaptation à son milieu d’implantation.

Cet ouvrage s’adressera aux parties prenantes que sont les administrations publiques et parapubliques, le secteur privé, les institutions académiques et professionnelles, la société civile, etc.

Les contributions attendues doivent concerner prioritairement l’un des aspects suivants :

  1. RSE/RSO et Objectifs de développement durable, horizon 2030 en Afrique subsaharienne;
  2. RSE/RSO et lutte contre la pauvreté dans les pays subsahariens ;
  3. RSE/RSO dans le secteur forestier en Afrique subsaharienne;
  4. Industrialisation, technologie propre et croissance économique dans les pays subsahariens ;
  5. Industrialisation durable, recherche et innovation dans les pays subsahariens ;
  6. Grandes entreprises, sociétés transnationales et les Droits de l’Homme;
  7. La politique de la production durable dans les PMI/PME en Afrique subsaharienne ;
  8. Protection des moyens de substances et de la production basique face aux crises écologiques au Cameroun ; etc.

Les chapitres seront évalués selon la méthode ouverte croisée des Éditions science et bien commun (entre auteurs et auteures du livre, avec publication d’un résumé des évaluations).

Processus de création du livre

Ce projet de livre est ouvert à tous et toutes, dans un état d’esprit qui rejette toute perspective de compétition ou d’exclusion. Au contraire, la visée de justice cognitive de ce livre nous amène à vouloir l’ouvrir à tous les savoirs et à toutes les épistémologies, pour autant que cela nous aide à comprendre son objet. Nous travaillerons donc avec tous les auteurs et auteures qui veulent participer à cette aventure pour améliorer leur proposition ou leur texte afin que ce livre devienne une ressource précieuse.

Sur le plan des consignes d’écriture, il est tout à fait possible d’inclure des photos ou d’autres images. Il est également possible de proposer, en guise de chapitre, la transcription d’une entrevue ou d’un témoignage ou encore une vidéo pour la version en ligne, si cela permet à des savoirs d’entrer dans notre livre. Par contre, afin de maximiser l’accessibilité et l’utilisation du livre, nous demandons de restreindre l’usage de tout jargon spécialisé.

La circulation de cet appel dans toutes les universités africaines est cruciale pour respecter la visée de justice cognitive et de circulation régionale de l’information.

À noter que la rédaction de ces chapitres est bénévole et ne sera pas rémunérée. La gratification des auteurs et auteures sera de voir leur chapitre circuler et être utilisé au service du bien commun de l’Afrique.

Les auteures et auteurs participant au livre seront invités à échanger tout au long du processus d’écriture et d’édition dans un groupe Facebook ou WhatsApp, afin de partager des idées, des références et des premières versions, dans l’esprit d’entraide et de collaboration qui est promu par la justice cognitive.

Calendrier

  • Mars 2018 : Lancement de l’appel
  • 30 juin 2018 : Date limite pour envoyer une proposition (un résumé de quelques phrases) ou un chapitre
  • 31 juillet 2018 : Réponse aux propositions et réception des chapitres jusqu’au 31 octobre 2018.
  • Décembre 2018 : Publication d’une version complète en ligne et impression d’exemplaires sur demande.

Pour participer

Dès que possible, envoyez un message à l’adresse propositions@editionscienceetbiencommun.org avec votre biographie (en quelques lignes), les coordonnées complètes de votre institution ou de votre association et un résumé du chapitre (ou des chapitres) que vous souhaitez proposer. Ce résumé consiste à présenter en quelques phrases le contenu du texte que vous souhaitez proposer, en l’associant, dans la mesure du possible, à une des thématiques proposées.

Les valeurs et le projet éditorial des Éditions science et bien commun

Merci de les lire attentivement sur cette page.

Les consignes d’écriture sont sur cette page.

Notes

[1]Croissance démographique, http://www.unesco.org/new/fr/africa-department/priority-africa/operational-strategy/demographic-growth/. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[2] Idem.

[3]  Rapport sur l’urbanisation en Afrique : pour soutenir la croissance il faut améliorer la vie des habitants et des entreprises dans les villes, http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2017/02/09/world-bank-report-improving-conditions-for-people-and-businesses-in-africas-cities-is-key-to-growth. (Consulté le 15/08/2017).

Cf. Félix Zogning,Ahmadou Aly Mbaye,Marie-Thérèse Um-Ngouem, L’économie informelle, l’entrepreneuriat et l’emploi, Editions JFD, 2017 p.81.

[4] http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/region/afr/overview. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[5] Le nécessaire développement des infrastructures pour une croissance plus inclusive en Afrique, https://www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats/cercle/cercle-164856-le-necessaire-developpement-des-infrastructures-pour-une-croissance-plus-inclusive-en-afrique-2056658.php. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[6] Idem.

[7] Toujours plus de personnes pauvres en Afrique malgré les progrès réalisés en matière d’éducation et de santé, http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/news/press-release/2015/10/16/africa-gains-in-health-education-but-numbers-of-poor-grow. (Consulté le 11/08/2017).

[8] M. BAMBARA et A. SENE, « L’évolution de la responsabilité sociétale de l’entreprise à la faveur du développement durable: vers une juridicisation de la RSE »  in Revue Africaine du Droit de l’Environnement, nᵒ 00, 2012, p.100.

[9]L’OIT et la responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise, Helpdesk du BIT N◦1,  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_emp/—emp_ent/—multi/documents/publication/wcms_142693.pdf (consulté le 12/02/2015).

[10] Emmanuelle Champion et al., Les représentations de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises : un éclairage sociologique, Les cahiers de la Chaire de responsabilité sociale et développement durable ESG-UQÀM – collection recherche No 05-2005, p.4.

[11] MacWilliams, A. & Siegel, D., cité par Marianne Rubinstein, « Le développement de la responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise », Revue d’économie industrielle [En ligne], 113 | 1er trimestre 2006, mis en ligne le 21 avril 2008, consulté le 18 janvier 2015. URL :http://rei.revues.org/295.

 

Collectivity and Collaboration in Scholar-led Publishing

New article out in Insights by Janneke Adema and Samuel Moore, which discusses the potential of new forms of communality for scholar-led publishing using the Radical Open Access Collective as a case study.

The article is available on the journal website here: https://insights.uksg.org/articles/10.1629/uksg.399/ (where you can also leave comments in the margins) and you can find the abstract below.

Collectivity and collaboration: imagining new forms of communality to create resilience in scholar-led publishing

Authors: Janneke AdemaSamuel A. Moore 

Abstract

The Radical Open Access Collective (ROAC) is a community of scholar-led, not-for-profit presses, journals and other open access (OA) projects. The collective promotes a progressive vision for open access based on mutual alliances between the 45+ member presses and projects seeking to offer an alternative to commercial and legacy models of publishing. This article presents a case study of the collective, highlighting how it harnesses the strengths and organizational structures of not-for-profit, independent and scholar-led publishing communities by 1) further facilitating collective efforts through horizontal alliances, and by 2) enabling vertical forms of collaboration with other agencies and organizations within scholarly publishing. It provides a background to the origins of the ROAC, its members, its publishing models on display and its future plans, and highlights the importance of experimenting with and promoting new forms of communality in not-for-profit OA publishing.

How to Cite: Adema, J. & Moore, S.A., (2018). Collectivity and collaboration: imagining new forms of communality to create resilience in scholar-led publishing. Insights. 31(1), p.3. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.399

Growing bulbs of intellectual freedom from academic libraries

Re-blog from: https://moananddrone.github.io/bag-of-onions

by Kevin Sanders (moananddrone)

As many of us are increasingly aware, data pertaining to our online behaviour- when and where we have been, what we did whilst occupying that space, etc.- have become increasingly valuable to a range of stakeholders and bad actors, including unethical hackers, commercial organisations, and the state. The weaknesses inherent across various web infrastructures, their deployment, and their ubiquitous, multipurpose uses are routinely exploited to capture the private data and information of individuals and entire communities.

For many librarians, this technological and cultural problem has been increasingly acknowledged as part of a wider political concern that is directly relevant to our professional requirement to protect the right to intellectual privacy (Fister, 2015; Smith, 2018).

Through both my professional and voluntary labour with the Library Freedom Project and the Radical Librarians Collective, I have been trying to directly offer support for individuals in their attempt to protect their privacy through their behaviours and the digital tools they choose to make use of. However, consistently weaving intellectual privacy throughout my professional praxis is a significant challenge.

Peeling back the layers of libraries and the scholarly commons

I am currently employed as the Research Support Manager for Library Services at the University of West London (UWL). A significant aspect of my role is to manage and administrate the UWL Repository, which is the institution’s repository of research outputs. The repository makes these outputs discoverable and accessible through what is known as green open access.

The collection, storage, management, and sharing of information demonstrated in the administration of a repository are all core elements of library work. However, this specific aspect of library work directly contributes towards the development and maintenance of the scholarly commons as an accessible body of work that “admit[s] the curious, rather than [only] the orthodox, to the alchemist’s vault” (Illich, 1973), and to allow people to re-use the research for their own purposes.

In all areas of library work, ensuring that the personal data and information of our user communities is stored securely is very important for the preservation of intellectual privacy. However, in the contemporary environment, libraries’ digital connections to external sources and services can make this challenging. Libraries are reliant on services that are served externally, and as such libraries lack the ability to control how these services share data required for the use of these services.

As the University have control over the repository through an agreement with a hosting service, it has been easy enough to enable some security enhancements. As such, from January 2018, the UWL Repository has been wrapped in HTTPS to respect our user communities’ information security by ensuring that all connections to it are encrypted.

Unfortunately, the scholarly commons is only as accessible as it is permitted to be on the clear-net, as there are many powerful stakeholders that have the ability to suppress access and thus censor scholars and other publics from accessing the published results of academic research and scholarship.

Onions don’t grow on trees; environmental ethics and the scholarly commons

Some popular online services and networks for scholars, such as Sci-Hub, ResearchGate, academia.edu, also offer users the option to share their scholarly and research outputs gratis. The latter two are capital venture funded, commercial services. Part of their business operations include providing data around research that can, it is claimed, offer insights into its ‘impact’. However, these services do not take responsibility for the frequent breaches of licences that help to calcify the commodification of scholarly knowledge (Lawson et al., 2015,). Many of these services also have vested interests in the data stored and created through the use of their services.

For the scholarly commons, publishing via open access (through both gold open access publishers and via institutional and subject repositories) and making use of appropriate Creative Commons licences is a significantly more effective and ethical way to share and access research and scholarly outputs. Institutional repositories are commonly sustained by institutional funding (i.e. they serve not-for-profit functions), for instance, and they also commonly run on free (libre) and open source software such as EPrintssoftware, which is licensed under GPL v3.0.

Here, we can see that libraries actively support a libre approach to free, online access to scholarly information.

Layering up for intellectual privacy, access, and the scholarly commons

As referred to above, various fields of informational labour hold a broad consensus view around users’ right and need for intellectual privacy (Richards, 2015). In this context, ensuring that the research and scholarly outputs are accessible in ways that allow users to retain their privacy seems essential.

As such, I have made the UWL Repository accessible from within the Tor network as an onion service.

I briefly consulted Library Services’ director, Andrew Preater, prior to undertaking this work, but I was able to make use of Enterprise Onion Toolkit (EOTK) to create a proxy of the repository without requiring root access to the webserver of the clear-net site, and without having to make copies of the files held on that server. As a proof-of-concept, it is now accessible via https://6dtdxvvrug3v6g6d.onion, but may be moved to a more permanent .onion address in the future, subject to institutional support. (Please note that an exception has to be granted to access the onion service due to some of the complexities of HTTPS over onion services. This is something that I would hope to resolve with institutional support. Please see Murray’s post for further details).

This provision allows global access to the UWL Repository and its accessible content in a form that allows users to protect their right to intellectual privacy; neither their ISP nor UWL, as a service provider, will be able to identify their personal use of UWL Repository when using https://6dtdxvvrug3v6g6d.onion/.

Having repositories available as onion services is of significant benefit for those accessing the material from, for instance, oppressive geopolitical contexts. Onion services offer not only enhanced privacy for users, but also help to circumvent censorship. Some governments and regimes routinely deny access to clear-net websites deemed obscene or a threat to national security. Providing an onion service of the repository not only protects those that may suffer enhanced digital surveillance for challenging social constructs or social relations (which can have a severely chilling effect on intellectual freedom), but also on entire geographical areas that are locked out of accessing publicly accessible content on the clear-net.

The expansion of intellectual privacy for the scholarly commons is bringing tears to my eyes

Although this is a small step for the scholarly commons, it is an important one. In our politically fragile world, marginalised communities often suffer disproportionate risks, and taking this simple step helps to reinstate somesafety into this digital space (Barron et al., 2017). As Ganghadharan (2012) notes, “[u]ntil policy–makers begin a frank discussion of how to account for benefits and harms of experiencing online worlds and to confront the need to protect collective and individual privacy online, oppressive practices will continue”.

I hope that other library and information workers, repository administrators, open access publishers, and their associated indexing services will take inspiration from the step that I have taken and help us to lead a collective charge that places intellectual privacy at the centre of both the scholarly commons and digital library services.

Acknowledgements:

I would like to thank Murray Royston-Ward and Simon Barron for their technical support (if you do not have access to a server, Murray has written a guide to trialling a Tor mirror of services via Google’s Cloud Engine), Alec Muffett for his development of EOTK, Alison Macrina and the Library Freedom Project for their advocacy of digital rights within libraries, the Radical Librarians Collective for providing spaces to support my professional development and practical skills, and to all those involved in the Tor Project that support and provide tools that allow us to make good on our right to digital privacy.

References:

Barron, S., Regnault, C., and Sanders, K. (2017). Library privacy. Carnegie UK. [Retrieved from: https://www.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/uncategorized/library-privacy/]

Fister, B. (2015). Big Data or Big Brother? Data, ethics, and academic libraries. Library Issues: Briefings for Faculty and Administrators. [Retrieved from: https://barberafister.net/LIbigdata.pdf]

Gangadharan, S. P. (2012). Digital inclusion and data profiling. First Monday, 17(5)

Illich, I. (1973). Tools for conviviality. [Retrieved from: http://web.media.mit.edu/~calla/web_comunidad/Reading-En/Illichhapters1_2_3.pdf]

Lawson, S., Sanders, K., and Smith, L. (2015). Commodification of the information profession: A critique of higher education under neoliberalism. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 3 (1). [Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.1182]

Richards, N. (2015). Intellectual privacy: Rethinking civil liberties in the digital age. Oxford University Press, USA

Smith, L. (2018). Surveillance, privacy, and the ethics of librarianship. Cambridge Libraries Conference, 11/01,2018. [Retrieved from: https://www.slideshare.net/laurensmith/surveillance-privacy-and-the-ehtics-of-librarianship

This is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence

Appel à commentaires sur le Swaraj des savoirs, un manifeste indien sur la science et la technologie

Le Swaraj des savoirs est la traduction d’un manifeste publié en Inde en 2011 sous le titre Knowledge Swaraj. An Indian Manifesto on Science and Technology. Nourri par une réflexion approfondie sur la justice cognitive et la pluralité des savoirs, ce manifeste propose une vision très riche d’un nouveau contrat social entre la science et le développement local durable dans un pays des Suds (l’Inde). Il invite à repenser notre conception des savoirs et de leur rapport à la société en s’inspirant des idées et des actions de Gandhi et de divers mouvements sociaux indiens. Il en appelle ainsi à un développement scientifique et technique ancré dans les besoins et les réalités des Indiens et Indiennes.

Avec l’accord du Collectif KICS qui en est l’auteur, les Éditions science et bien commun ont décidé de traduire en français ce Manifeste à l’intention du public francophone. En particulier, nous souhaitons que ce texte circule dans les pays francophones des Suds afin d’inspirer des réflexions locales sur le type de recherche scientifique qui est souhaitable pour ces pays : une recherche qui respecterait leurs priorités, leurs aspirations et leurs épistémologies, par exemple. Un grand merci à Mélissa Lieutenant-Gosselin qui en a fait la traduction. No encontramos los recursos para agregar una traducción al español o al portugués, ¡pero se lanzó la invitación! Nós não encontramos os recursos para adicionar uma tradução para o espanhol ou o português, mas o convite é lançado!

Afin de stimuler ce débat que nous souhaitons plurilingue et international sur les propositions du Swaraj des savoirs, nous allons ajouter au livre – qui comporte déjà la version originale et la version française du texte – une troisième partie qui sera composée de commentaires d’auteurs et auteures des Suds. Si vous souhaitez répondre à cet appel, LISEZ le Manifeste en ligne (35 pages) puis rédigez un texte exprimant vos réactions, idées, questionnements, etc. suscités par cette lecture, dans n’importe quelle langue.

Date limite : 28 février 2018

Pour en savoir plus, allez lire l’appel complet.

Registration Open for NECS Post-Conference: Open Media Studies

The process of scholarly communication is changing dramatically. Digitization of archives, online research methods and tools, and new ways to disseminate research results are developing fast. During the past four annual NECS (Network for Cinema and Media Studies) conferences, we have held two-hour workshops to discuss the implementation of open access, organized by, among others, editors of the open access journals VIEW: Journal of European Television History and Culture and NECSUS: European Journal of Media Studies. Both journals were founded in 2012 with a NWO grant.

In 2018 we will expand on our experience by organizing a one-day workshop immediately following the annual NECS conference, which this year will be held in Amsterdam, organized by the University of Amsterdam (UvA), University Utrecht (UU), and the Free University of Amsterdam (VU) on 27-29 June. Our post-conference workshop will take place on Saturday 30 June 2018 at the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, Hilversum, The Netherlands.

The developments in open research follow each other at a rapid pace. For the discipline of media studies, developments appear to be a bit faster than for other disciplines in the humanities, as there is already a longer tradition of online sharing, and different media are used for scholarly communication (blogs, videos, audiovisual essays, etc.), besides the traditional peer-reviewed journal article or monograph. With this one-day workshop we aim to explore the concept of ‘open’ in media studies by sharing best practices as well as to investigate what is needed for media scholars to make the entire scholarly communication process (research, analysis, writing, review, publishing, etc.) more transparent.

We will do so by bringing together a group of maximum 25 researchers in media studies in a series of workshops devoted to the themes: 1) research and analysis, 2) writing and publishing, 3) peer review, and 4) public engagement. The day will open with a keynote by prof.dr. Malte Hagener (Philipps-Universität Marburg), one of the co-founding editors of NECSUS and founder of the recently launched project MediaRep, a subject repository for media studies.

The main goals for the day are: creating awareness among the researchers; offer solutions to concrete issues; and explore new open access/science initiatives in relation to media studies. Outcomes of the workshop will be published on the website of NECS, as well as on the Open Access in Media Studies website.

Registration is free. However, there is a maximum of 25 participants. Workshops will be hands-on and active participation is encouraged. Interested?

For the preliminary program and registration, please follow this link.

Hope to see you in Amsterdam/Hilversum!

Organising team: Jeroen Sondervan (Utrecht University), Jeffrey Pooley (Muhlenberg College, US), Jaap Kooijman (University of Amsterdam), Erwin Verbruggen (Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision).

New Learned Society Network: ScholarlyHub

On October 21st the ScholarlyHub initiative launched its website, mission and ideas about developing a new social academic open access network for sharing papers and other scholarly literature. The project is in its incubator stage and needs crowdfunding to further develop these plans. ScholaryHub wants to directly compete with academic social networking platforms like Academia.edu and ResearchGate. The big difference between these commercial networking behemoths and the ScholarlyHub initiative, is the scholarly-led bottom-up approach of the latter. A remarkable group of academics from different disciplines have gathered to take the first steps towards a non-profit framework with options to share papers, collaborate with other researchers, and enhance public engagement, using social networking tools.

From the project website:

ScholarlyHub will be a non-profit framework, where members pay a small annual fee (directly or through an existing learned society, network, project or institution) and create personal, thematic, project-based, associational or institutional profiles and populate them with scholarly and educational materials as they see fit. These are stored in a searchable, real open-access archive, and are directly viewable and downloadable from the portal by anyone (that is, not only members), without having to register or volunteer personal data.”

In order to make this happen, money is needed to built an infrastructure. No venture capital, but actual support from actual researchers. On November 29th ScholarlyHub launched a crowdfunding campaign hoping to raise € 500.000,- for developing the first version of the platform.

It will be very interesting to see how this initiative will evolve in the next few months, because in the last few years criticism has grown about the commercialization of the aforementioned platforms Academia.edu and ResearchGate. For these enterprises, the user is the product and that obviously leads to important (ethical) questions power, ownership, reuse, and archiving policies, etc..[1] All in all, practices ScholarlyHub explicitly rejects.

As can be found on their website: “Growing threats to open science have made it more crucial than before to develop a sustainable, not-for-profit environment. One that allows you to publish, share, and access quality work without financial constraints.”

But some have already asked the question how this platform will relate to, for example, the Humanities Commons, which pursues similar goals and which saw the light last year[2]. And another example the Open Science Framework platform, which offers an open repository for papers and data. A very interesting and much needed discussion will happen in the coming months to investigate whether and how these non-profit platforms should co-exist.

In any case, it will be a much healthier situation if, in addition to the existing commercial academic social networks, non-profit equivalents enter this market.

Notes:

[1] Further reading: Pooley, J. (2017). Scholarly Communication Shouldn’t Just be Open but Non-Profit Too: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2017/08/15/scholarly-communications-shouldnt-just-be-open-but-non-profit-too/

[2] https://www.edsurge.com/news/2017-11-16-researchers-ask-does-academia-need-another-alternative-to-for-profit-scholarly-platforms / ScholarlyHub Response: https://www.scholarlyhub.org/feed/2017/11/12/launch-weeks-ffaqs

The Radical OA Collective: building alliances for a progressive, scholar-led commons

Underneath a blogpost Samuel Moore and Janneke Adema wrote, which was originally published on the LSE Impact Blog, here.


The Radical Open Access Collective launched its new website earlier this week. Open access has always been about more than just improving access to research, and Janneke Adema and Samuel A. Moore here highlight what the Radical OA Collective can offer. A focus on experimentation with new forms of publishing and authorship; the promotion of traditionally underrepresented cultures, languages, and publics; and an understanding of publishing as a relational practice, highlighting and caring for the relationships involved throughout the process, all form part of the Radical OA Collective’s underlying philosophy.

This week saw the launch of a new website for the Radical Open Access Collective, a vibrant community of presses, journals, publishing projects, and organisations all invested in not-for-profit and scholar-led forms of academic publishing. The members of this collective showcase the wide variety of alternative forms and models of open access publishing currently experimented with, mainly in the humanities and social sciences. This in a context where, although open access is now finally gaining ground, the spirit of experimentation that originally fuelled this movement is being progressively sidelined by a growing reliance on and implementation of specific, market-driven open access publishing models (particularly those connected to exorbitant article and book processing charges); models which do not necessarily suit, support or sustain open access publishing in the humanities and social sciences, but which do serve commercial stakeholders’ interests and the current publishing status quo.

The Radical OA Collective reminds us that experimentation with new forms of publishing remains essential, and that open access has always been about more than just improving access to research. As a movement open access has also focused on exploring and promoting not-for-profit, institutional and academic-led publishing alternatives, for example. This is to provide a counterpoint to the commercial legacy system and the vast profits it extracts from our scholarly research and communication interactions. This system has posed specific risks to specialised book publishing in the humanities, to the publication of books by early-career researchers, and to the dissemination of research from those working in the global south or writing in languages other than English; all of which, although essential to sustaining the scholarly conversation, often lack a direct market appeal. To counter this the Radical OA Collective highlights the importance of making publishing more diverse, equitable, and open to change, where it wants to ensure that new and underrepresented cultures of knowledge are able to have a voice. Members of the collective therefore work together to champion the variety of alternative models for scholarly communication that currently exist, and the collective is keen to build alliances with other initiatives interested in building a collaborative and non-competitive publishing ecosystem; one which supports a progressive and multi-polar knowledge commons.

During open access week, we’d like to highlight three examples of what radical open access, and the Radical OA Collective specifically, brings to open access.

1. A focus on experimentation

Members of the collective do not shy away from asking difficult questions about what publishing is and, with that, what it can become. Many initiatives within the collective see their publishing projects as an extension of their own critical work and a way to explore different modes of publishing, often deterred by our (still very paper-centric) established publishing forms and practices. As such they have been keen to experiment with publication forms, models, processes, relations, and agencies, cutting through the stabilisations within scholarly publishing–from the fixed book to the single author–that, often uncritically, have become disciplinary norms. This open-ended critical experimenting has become a guiding principle for many initiatives to explore the potentially more politically and ethically progressive possibilities made possible by technological developments and digital tools; to investigate how these might impact on the ways in which research will be conducted, disseminated and consumed in the future. As an ongoing critical process, experimenting can therefore be seen as a form of intervention into the object-formation and increasing marketisation of publishing and academia.

Many of the projects involved in the collective see open access as essential to enabling these new forms of (digital) experimentation. This may be through communal authoring and editing of wiki books (see Open Humanities Press’ Living Books about Life series); anonymous or collective authorship (in the case of an Uncertain Commons, for example); or multimodal or digital-only publications, publishing platforms and software (including ground-breaking initiatives such as Vectors and Scalar, but also newer projects, such as electric press and Textshop Experiments) next to projects that want to focus on what openness means for images and visual forms of communication (i.e. Photomediations Machine) for example. But alongside experiments such as these we also want to highlight projects that aim to cut across both disciplinary boundaries and distinctions between practice and theory (for example Goldsmiths Press, which also focuses on publishing literary and artistic works), as well as scholarly communities that are experimenting with the creation of new communities and social networks to share research and establish cross-disciplinary alliances (from MediaCommons Press, to The BABEL Working Group and Humanities Commons).

2. Underrepresented cultures

One of the main motivations underlying the Radical OA Collective concerns the promotion of diversity and equitability within academic publishing, and this entails the creation of environments where traditionally underrepresented cultures can fully participate. This includes presses and alliances that promote publishing and collaboration in specific regions; for example CLACSO, which brings together hundreds of research centres and graduate schools in the social sciences and humanities, predominantly in Latin American countries, or African Minds, which, next to publishing works from African academics or organisations, has conducted in depth research on the state of the university press in Africa. Members also promote publishing in different languages; see, for example, Éditions Science et Bien Commun, a Quebec-based press publishing research by and for francophone countries in the Global South, or meson press, which (next to books in English) is keen to publish and translate media theory books in German.

There is also a focus on providing opportunities to early-career researchers to publish, and not only to publish but to help them directly with the publishing process and familiarise themselves with it. Mattering Press, which originates from a peer-support group of early-career researchers, in particular wants to stimulate those at the beginning of their academic careers, as do publications such as Capacious: Journal for Emerging Affect Inquiry, dedicated to the publication of writings and creative works by degree-seeking students. punctum books is well-known for providing space for the publication of works of so-called “para-academic” theorists and practitioners, often independent or precariously employed researchers or those in so-called “alt-ac” positions. These projects and the collective as a whole are dedicated to opening up scholarship to publics that are new or currently underserved, including those writing on niche topics or conducting experimental research for which the commercial publishing market doesn’t always provide a space.

3. Ethics of care

One of the things for which the Radical OA Collective stands out is its members’ focus on the ethics and politics of publishing. For example, many initiatives foreground an ethics of care, as part of which publishing is understood as a relational practice, highlighting and caring for the relationships involved throughout the publishing process, from authors, editors and reviewers to typesetters, copy-editors, indexers and beyond. This involves, amongst others, paying, rewarding or otherwise acknowledging people fairly for their labour wherever possible, while ensuring that the efforts of volunteers are not exploited or overly relied upon. Well aware of the high amounts of volunteer labour that academic-led initiatives depend on, the collective has made this one of its focal points, writing about and discussing the diverse forms of labour academic publishing relies upon, arguing for it to be valued more in various ways (that are not necessarily monetary).  A focus on labour issues is all the more important in a predominantly commercial publishing environment, given the large amounts of academic volunteer labour (from peer reviewing to editing, to liking and bookmarking and building relationships in exchange for usage data in SSRNs) that is needed to sustain it and maintain the exorbitant profits its stakeholders have come to expect.

The Radical OA Collective therefore seeks to redirect this volunteer labour where possible towards more progressive forms of publishing, for example by shifting it away from commercial profit-driven publishers and gifting it to developing not-for-profit open access projects instead. Related to this is a commitment to taking time and care with regard to the published object itself, something that is often lacking in profit-oriented modes of publishing. But perhaps most important, as Eileen Joy of punctum books writes, is for the collective to care for “ourselves and each other” in the face of marketised cultures of higher education that require researchers to work long hours and think of themselves as “brands”:

“This would be to think of Community, or the Collective, as a sort of ‘mutual admiration society’, but also as a Convalescent Ward, in which ‘taking care’ (of ourselves and each other) would be more important than ‘performing’ according to so-called ‘professional’ standards and protocols.”

Next to bringing together this community of people eager to change publishing, to make it better and more just, the collective wants to support other academics eager to set up their own presses and projects, or those disillusioned with the commercial solutions currently on offer. We share advice and offer support from those within the community who have already gained experience with publishing in this manner and are willing to help others in a horizontal and non-competitive manner. We have started to formalise this through the creation of an information portal with links to resources on funding opportunities for open access books, open-source publishing tools, guidelines on editing standards, ethical publishing and diversity in publishing, and OA literature useful to not-for-profit publishing endeavours. We want to turn this into a toolkit for not-for-profit publishers in the future (and this will be of use not only to academic-led presses, but hopefully also to university presses, and library-run and society publishers, for example). We have also set up a directory of academic-led presses, to help legitimise this form of publishing as a “model” and make scholars aware that there are publishing alternatives out there.

If you run a not-for-profit OA publishing initiative or are interested in starting your own scholar-led publishing project, we encourage you to join the Radical OA mailing list and help us further build this supportive and inclusive publishing environment.

Radical Open Access Website Officially Launched!

We are happy to announce that today marks the official launch of our new and updated website for the Radical Open Access Collective ! Thanks to all our members and those in our expanded communities for making this happen.

Formed in 2015, the Radical OA Collective is a community of scholar-led, not-for-profit presses, journals and other open access projects in the humanities and social sciences. We represent an alternative open access ecosystem and seek to create a different future for open access, one based on experimenting with not-for-profit, scholar-led approaches to publishing. You can read more about the philosophy behind the collective here: https://radicaloa.co.uk/philosophy/

As a collective, we offer mutual reliance and support for each other’s projects by sharing the knowledge and resources we have acquired. Through our projects we also aim to provide advice, support and encouragement to academics and other not-for-profit entities interested in setting up their own publishing initiatives. The current website contains a Directory of academic-led presses, which showcases the breadth and rich diversity in scholar-led presses currently operating in an international context and across numerous fields, and an Information Portal with links to resources on funding opportunities for open access books, open source publishing tools, guidelines on editing standards, ethical publishing and diversity in publishing, and OA literature useful to not-for-profit publishing endeavours. We will be further developing this into a toolkit for open access publishing in order to encourage and support others to start their own publishing projects. If you run a not-for-profit OA publishing initiative or are interested in starting your own scholar-led publishing project, we encourage you to join the Radical OA mailing list and get involved with the discussion!

Please do get in touch if you would like further information on the project or would like your publishing project to be involved.

Deux siècles de protestantisme en Haïti (1816-2016). Implantation, conversion et sécularisation

Auteurs : Collectif d’écriture sous la direction de Vijonet Demero et Samuel Regulus

Date de parution : 27 octobre 2017

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

Comment le protestantisme s’est-il développé en Haïti? Quelle est la contribution du protestantisme à l’histoire et à la société haïtienne? Comment se situent les églises réformées face aux enjeux de la sécularisation et de la mondialisation? Aborder ces questions sans complaisance est essentiel pour l’avenir du protestantisme en Haïti et c’est ce que propose ce livre issu du colloque du Bicentenaire du protestantisme organisé par l’Institut universitaire de Formation des Cadres (INUFOCAD) du 15 au 17 août 2016 à Port-au-Prince, sous les auspices de la Fédération protestante d’Haïti.

Illustration de couverture : design de Djossè Roméo Tessy, photographie d’Anderson Pierre

  • ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-32-1
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : 978-2-924661-31-4

Pour acheter le livre au Canada, par chèque ou virement bancaire : écrire à inf0@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Le livre est aussi disponible à la Librairie du Quartier, 1120, avenue Cartier, Québec G1R 2S5  (418) 990-0330 et à la librairie ZONE de l’Université Laval (https://www.zone.coop/) (418) 656-2600.

Pour le commander en ligne (des frais de port de 9 $ s’ajouteront) :


Version papier ou ePub



The Knowledge Exchange Group has Published a New Report on Open Access Monographs

From the Knowledge Exchange website:

This first-of-a-kind report from Knowledge Exchange maps the landscape for open access books in the Knowledge Exchange countries; Finland, Netherlands, UK, France, Denmark and Germany, together with Norway and Austria.

The field of open access monographs is still in its early evolution and therefore 73 in-depth conversations were conducted for this report to understand the different developments among three stakeholder groups: Publishers, funders and libraries. The importance of author attitudes, scholarly reward and incentive systems is also raised throughout the study by numerous interviewees.

The general explanation for monographs not being included in policies is the global focus on journal publishing and the perception that monographs are more complex to deal with than journals. Some also point to a lack of demand yet from authors.

In general, open access book publishers will comply with gold open access policies from funders and institutions. This is not the case for green open access. It appears that the current self archiving policies from publishers for books are largely restricted to book chapters.

The report also points towards the fact that funding schemes for books are lagging behind schemes for articles and their availability to fund the publishing process is somewhat ad hoc across the countries we’ve surveyed. Nevertheless the authors are ‘cautiously optimistic’ about the prospects for open access and monographs.

The report creates an overview of both the open access monographs policies, funding streams and publishing models for all eight countries for the first time. This is used to point towards areas of future efforts.

The report can be downloaded here.
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.815932

The authors Eelco Ferwerda, Frances Pinter and Niels Stern have done a marvelous job writing a comprehensive overview of the current status of open access monograph publishing and all its related issues. It is with no doubt that important findings in this report will find their way to the information available on this website as soon as possible.

Reblog: Taking back control

Joining NECS’ publication committee

I recently joined the publication committee of NECS European Network for Cinema and Media Studies. It’s an honor and I’m hoping to give more context to (open access) scholarly publishing in media studies in the nearby future.

One of the things I’m working on at the moment is the development of a global survey in order to map the changing landscape of scholarly communication in media studies. Publishing policies like open access (e.g. U.K. and Netherlands), technologies and workflows are in constant motion. But we sometimes forget that researchers are in the lead. How do they work? What do they need? What do they know about it?

I hope to open the survey in November 2017. One of the aims is to research and analyse existing knowledge on and practices of open access (science) publishing, workflows and tools in order to create an coherent overview that can be used by others to learn and/or adapt their practices. I will communicate further about this project on this website. If you want to be updated about this project, you can sign-up for the newsletter.

 

Québec ville refuge

Québec ville refuge. Portraits

Auteurs et auteures : Collectif d’écriture sous la direction de Florence Piron

Date de parution : 31 octobre 2017

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Résumé :

Le racisme et la discrimination sont attisés par l’ignorance mutuelle. « Qui sont ces personnes qui viennent trouver refuge dans ma ville? », se demandent les habitants qui y sont nés ou qui y ont grandi. « Comment vont m’accueillir ces personnes qui habitent la ville où je me retrouve aujourd’hui?», se demandent les personnes réfugiées à Québec après avoir fui leur pays. L’absence de réponse à ces questions peut engendrer la méfiance, le rejet et le repli sur soi et nuire à la construction collective du vivre-ensemble harmonieux auquel tous et toutes aspirent.

Ce livre, comme l’ensemble de la série Québec ville ouverte, répond de manière concrète et simple à ce besoin de mieux se connaître et se comprendre. Il propose des portraits d’hommes et de femmes qui sont arrivés un jour à Québec avec le statut de réfugié et des portraits de personnes qui ont choisi de les accueillir bénévolement ou de travailler pour un organisme qui prend soin d’eux. Des portraits de journalistes ou de spécialistes universitaires qui connaissent bien la situation des personnes réfugiées complètent ce livre.

Ces courts portraits, réalisés par des étudiantes et étudiants en communication publique de l’Université Laval, nous montrent à la fois les différences, mais aussi les ressemblances entre les aspirations, les rêves, les manières de vivre et les valeurs de tous les citoyens et citoyennes de Québec, nés dans la ville ou ailleurs, ainsi que la générosité et l’ouverture qui caractérisent ceux et celles qui veulent accueillir…

Illustration de couverture : design de Kate McDonnell

  • ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-29-1
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Livre publié avec le concours  d’Accès savoirs, la boutique des sciences de l’Université Laval et de la Caisse Desjardins du Plateau Montcalm.

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Québec arabe. Portraits

Québec arabe (tomes 1 et 2). Portraits

Auteurs et auteures : Collectif d’écriture sous la direction de Florence Piron

Tome 1 : Algérie, Mauritanie, Syrie, Tunisie
ISBN : 978-2-924661-22-2

Tome 2 : Maroc, Liban, Lybie
ISBN : 978-2-924661-23-9

Date de parution : octobre 2017

 

 

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Résumé :

Le racisme et la discrimination sont attisés par l’ignorance mutuelle. « Qui sont ces étrangers qui viennent s’installer dans ma ville? », se demandent les habitants qui y sont nés ou qui y ont grandi. « Comment vont m’accueillir ces personnes qui habitent la ville où je souhaite m’établir? », se demandent les immigrantes et immigrants. L’absence de réponse à ces questions peut engendrer la méfiance, le rejet et le repli sur soi et nuire à la construction collective d’un vivre-ensemble harmonieux auquel tous et toutes aspirent.

Ce livre, comme l’ensemble de la série Québec, ville ouverte, répond de manière concrète et simple à ce besoin de mieux se connaître et se comprendre. Il propose des portraits d’hommes et de femmes du Maghreb et du Machrek qui, pour une raison ou pour une autre, vivent actuellement à Québec, que ce soit depuis 40 ans ou depuis quelques mois, avec le statut d’immigrant, de réfugié ou d’étudiant. Ces courts portraits, réalisés par des étudiantes et étudiants en communication publique de l’Université Laval, nous montrent à la fois les différences, mais aussi les ressemblances entre les aspirations, les rêves, les manières de vivre et les valeurs de tous les citoyens et citoyennes de Québec, nés ici ou ailleurs.

Illustration de couverture : design de Kate McDonnell

  • ISBN ePub :
  • ISBN du livre imprimé :

Livre publié avec le concours d’Accès savoirs, la boutique des sciences de l’Université Laval et de la Caisse Desjardins du Plateau Montcalm.

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Pensée afro-caribéenne et (psycho)traumatismes de l’esclavage et de la colonisation – Toubiyon Twoma Lesklavaj ak Kolonizasyon: Dangoyaj Panse Afwo-Karayibeyen

Auteurs : Collectif d’auteurs et d’auteures, sous la direction de Judite Blanc et Serge Madhère, avec la collaboration de Sterlin Ulysse

Date de parution : 28 octobre 2017

Résumé : Les chapitres de ce livre sont tirés du premier Festival de psychologie africaine organisé par l’Association Sikotwomatis ak Afrikanite (SITWOMAFRIKA), un Institut de recherche sur les traumatismes de l’esclavage et la psychologie africaine, en partenariat avec l’Institut de Recherches et d’Études Africaines de l’Université d’État d’Haïti,  à Port-au-Prince du 27 au 29 mai 2016. Ce livre cherche à nourrir la réflexion sur la place de l’histoire de l’esclavage dans le développement psychosocial des pays colonisés et sur l’incapacité de la psychologie occidentale à comprendre les personnes de culture africaine dans toutes leurs dimensions. Il vise aussi à faire (ré)-émerger ou à promouvoir des paradigmes théoriques, des outils, des techniques et méthodes thérapeutiques alimentés par la vision du monde cosmocentrique africaine.

Rezime : Chapit ki nan liv sa baze dirèkteman sou premye Festival Entènasyonal Sikoloji Afriken. Se Asosyasyon  Sikotwomatis ak Afrikanite (SITWOMAFRIKA), yon Enstiti Rechèch sou Twomatis Lesklavaj ak Sikoloji Afriken ki òganize festival sa a, soti 27 pou rive 29 me 2016 nan Pòtoprens, nan tèt kole ak Enstiti Rechèch ak Etid Afriken ann Ayiti (IERAH/ISERSS) nan Inivèsite Leta d Ayiti. Liv sa ap ede nou chache limyè sou twoma ki soti depi tan lakoloni e ki rive gen konsekans sikososyal rive jounen jodi a sou sivivan yo.

Epi l ap tou fouye zo nan kalalou pou montre ak ki difikilte sikoloji ki santre sou kilti loksidan ap konfwonte, nan fason li konprann sikoloji pèp ki soti ann Afrik. Ak liv sa, nou swete rive fè konprann enpòtans pou nou sèvi ak apwòch sa a tou nan fason nou konprann fenomèn lespri e nan fason n ap bay swen pou sante mantal.

***

La psychologue Judite Blanc est née à Port-au-Prince. Elle a décroché son diplôme de doctorat en Psychologie à l’Université Paris 13 Sorbonne Paris Cité. Actuellement, Dr Blanc enseigne à l’Université d’État d’Haïti et dans d’autres établissements universitaires privés de la capitale d’Haïti. Elle a rejoint en mars 2016 l’équipe éditoriale des Éditions science et bien commun.

Elle dirige l’Association Sikotwomatis ak Afrikanite qui promeut la recherche sur la place de l’histoire de l’esclavage dans le développement psychosocial des colonisés.es, afin de combler les lacunes des modèles explicatifs et thérapeutiques de la psychologie euro-centrique dans l’appréhension du comportement des individus afro-descendants. Globalement, ses réflexions et travaux s’articulent dans les champs suivants: psychologie « critique » et de la libération – créole et justice cognitive – genre et santé mentale – et psychologie de la créativité. Elle fonda en 2015 le Festival International de Psychologie Africaine dont la première édition se tiendra fin mai 2016 à Port-au-Prince.

Sites : http://www.sitwomafrika.org
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Judite_Blanc

***

Le livre est disponible en html (libre accès). Il sera en PDF, en format ePub et en livre imprimé à partir d’octobre 2017. Il est possible de le commander à l’aide du bouton Paypal ci-dessous.

ISBN ePub : 978-2-924661-10-9
ISBN pour l’impression : 978-2-924661-12-3

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We’re redeveloping the site…

There is nothing to see at the moment so only the home page is public. Login to use the navigation. We should be done August, 2017.

Things are Happening in the Humanities. But You Need to be Patient

A few weeks ago, Peter Suber, one of the leading figures of the open access movement, published a blog post on the website of The American Philosophical Association, entitled: ‘Why Open Access is Moving so Slow in the Humanities’. In there, he sums up 9 reasons why this is the case and I will just mention a few below:

‘Journal subscriptions are much higher in the Sciences Technology and Medicine (STM), than in the Humanities & Social Sciences (HSS). In the humanities, relatively affordable journal prices defuse the urgency of reducing prices or turning to open access as part of the solution.’

‘Much more STM research is funded than humanities research, so there is more money available for paying any open access charges.’

‘STM faculty typically need to publish journal articles to earn tenure, while humanities faculty need to publish books. But the logic of open access applies better to articles, which authors give away, than to books, which have the potential to earn royalties.’

Sadness of it all is that this post is a slightly revised version from the original from 2004. Today we’re still dealing with almost the same issues as 13 years ago. One of Suber’s conclusions is that “Open access isn’t undesirable or unattainable in the humanities. But it is less urgent and harder to subsidize than in the sciences.”[1]

I fully agree with this conclusion. But did we achieve nothing for the humanities then? No, a lot of things have happened in the last 5 to 10 years helping the humanities to make a transition to open access. But we are not there yet.

Open Access Journals

Globally several humanities journals have made the flip from toll access (TA) to open access and several new open access (niche) journals have seen the light in the last couple of years. Currently 9,426 open access journals are indexed by the DOAJ, of which a substantial part is in the humanities. A majority of those journals however, and we must not forget this, don’t charge a dime to publish research in open access.[2] In many cases, and this is exemplary for the humanities, foundations, institutions, and societies are paying for publishing research.

The financial model for open access in the humanities is not an easy road. In my previous life as a publisher in the humanities I’ve developed a few gold open access journals, all financed with money from institutions or research grants. However, subsidies for a journal coming from different institutions is a fragile model. Some of the journals had the ambition to move towards an APC model. None have done it so far.

New kid on the block, but very successful, is the Open Library of Humanities, run by Martin Eve and Caroline Edwards. They proposed and have implemented a model, which is a library funded model. With enough supporting libraries they are able to publish humanities research with no APCs. Main goal is to unburden authors with all kinds of financial hassle.

Institutional publishing

Another trend is the renewed rise of institutional (library) open access publishing. Some examples are Stockholm University Press, UCL Press and Meson Press. They distinguish themselves from traditional university press in the way that they only publish research in open access.

Online research tools

Other interesting developments are the experiments with redefining online publishing. I think it’s safe to say that these experiments just happen in the field of media studies. Collaborative research, writing and publication platforms like MediaCommons and the recently launched Manifold are very exiting initiatives. They all experiment with new digital formats, writing and publishing tools, and data publications.

Open Access Books

Open access for the academic book is on the agenda since 2008 / 2009 with the development of, amongst others, the OAPEN platform. And with indexes like the Directory of Open Access Books, established in 2011, open access books become visible and findable. Two weeks ago, a new milestone was reached with 8000+ open access books being indexed by DOAB and published by 213 publishers.Schermafbeelding 2017-06-23 om 23.55.15

However, open access for books is still underrated. There is a lack of aligned policies. Also, the lack of funding options makes it still very difficult for (smaller) humanities publishers to come up with a sustainable model for open access books. The focus for open access funding still lies with article publishing in journals and the financial models that come along with it.

For this website, I keep track of funders (research councils and universities) that actively support open access book publishing in media studies. I do this since 2015, but up till now the options for funding can be counted on 4 hands maximum. But even in the field of open access books things are happening with projects like Knowledge Unlatched. This project looks at funding coming directly from university libraries, supporting the ‘platform’ or book package and not the individual publication.

So, the important question now is what types of sustainable business models are appropriate for open access publishing in the humanities?

I think one important thing to keep in mind is that if we keep comparing the STM with the HSS it will not getting us very far. Another problem is that (open access) funding policies are still very focused on a local or national level or simply only look at APCs/BPCs. We need to work on a better international alignment of open access policies (per discipline) with different stakeholders (funders, libraries, publishers).

The Dutch Approach: Open Science

In February of this year, the National Plan Open Science[3] was launched in the Netherlands. Towards 2020 this roadmap concentrates on three key areas:

  1. Open access to scientific publications (open access).
  2. Make optimal use and reuse of research data.
  3. Adapting evaluation and award systems to bring them in line with the objectives of open science (reward systems).

cover-os-eng2One of the requirements is that by 2020 all researchers working for a Dutch research university need to publish their work (journals and books(!)) in open access. So this includes the HSS as well. To accomplish this the plan is launched to align all Dutch stakeholders to meet these requirements.

During the launch all the important academic stakeholders (research funders and associations) in the Netherlands explicitly committed themselves to this job. In Finland, similar things are happening.[4] And in other countries discussions have started about open access and open science requirements and indicators as well. It’s of great importance to connect these initiatives together as much as possible.

Preprints… “what”?

One other thing that Suber also mentions in his blog and I’d like to bring into this discussion, are preprints. In the humanities depositing preprints or post prints is not so common as it is in the sciences. That is for obvious reasons; loss of arguments and research outcomes, scooping, etc. etc. But are all these reasons still valid?

As academic community, it’s important to share your research to improve science. In the HSS we are apparently in need for platforms that can quickly disseminate research, based on the popularity (also among humanities scholars) of commercial social sharing platforms like Academia.edu and Researchgate. Note that I deliberately call them social sharing platforms, because that’s what they are.

It’s important that we need to make clear to academics what the implications are when using platforms like Academia.edu and ResearchGate. Both examples are commercial enterprises and interested in as much (personal) data as possible. The infrastructure serves a need but it comes with a cost. We need to think of sustainable alternatives.

IMG_7384

Preprint servers per discipline. Image credit: Bosman, J. & Kramer, B.

Back to the preprint discussion. In the humanities (thus for media studies), it is unusual to share research before it is published in a journal or book. But if everyone is so eager to share their publications in different stages of their research why is it still not common practice to share the work on a preprint server, comparable with ArXiv or SSRN (when it was not Elsevier property), and new servers like LawArXiv, SocArXiv, PsyArXiv, etc.

Will it ever become common practice in the humanities to share research in an earlier stage? Maybe this practice could help moving the humanities a bit quicker?

Who knows.

Notes

[1] https://blog.apaonline.org/2017/06/08/open-access-in-the-humanities-part-2/

[2] https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2015/08/26/do-most-oa-journals-not-charge-an-apc-sort-of-it-depends/

[3] https://www.openscience.nl/en

[4] http://openscience.fi/publisher_costs

Header image credit: Slughorn’s hourglass in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. © Warner Brothers

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) Terminates Open Access Incentive Fund on January 2018 – Some Considerations

On Monday, June 26, the Netherlands Research Council (NWO) announced that they will terminate the Incentive Fund Open Access on January 1, 2018.[1] NWO started this Incentive Fund in 2010 to finance open access publications and activities that highlight open access during scientific conferences.

The fund has been useful for advancing open access since it became available in 2010. However, this decision soon follows the launch of the National Plan Open Science (NPOS)[2], signed by NWO, early 2017. In this plan institutions commit themselves explicitly to work on a healthy open access climate to achieve 100% open access for researchers affiliated to Dutch research universities. Now it’s obvious that this fund is not going to be the solution. However, it’s a remarkable step especially now. There is still a lot to do.

The choice is unfortunate, the more because NWO has been one of the first national research councils in Europe with an active open access policy and, moreover, a well-funded program from which APCs (and BPCs) could be paid, provided that the research will be available immediately after publication (the Gold route). On a national level NWO and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) were the first funding bodies to mandate books and allocate money for BPCs. This policy is therefore quite unique, and only in the last three years or so, it’s under development at other places.

The Incentive Fund was founded with the aim to stimulate Gold open access. NWO hoped that with such a fund, this could be a model that universities would take over; individual institutions should bear the cost of open access with their own budgets. This has hardly come to fruition. Only the University of Amsterdam, Utrecht University, Delft University of Technology, and Wageningen University & Research have had such funds. At this very moment only Utrecht still runs an Open Access fund.

It is absolutely fair to ask why NWO should keep on spending money if it turns out that universities seem to find this step difficult. But now the boy scout decides to throw in the towel. Understandable, but disappointing. There are enough pros (and yes, cons as well) to consider.

In this piece, I would like to give some considerations why it would not (or would) be wise to terminate this fund. I take the arguments that NWO puts forward[3]:

“NWO believes that the academic world is now sufficiently aware of open access publishing and its importance.”

I doubt this very much. The debate on open access has so far been predominantly conducted by policy makers, libraries, and publishers. Researchers often submit their articles to the established and renowned, usually high-impact, journals. This (imposed) culture does not necessarily lead to more articles in open access journals. And yes, there are many researchers who are aware or the benefits of open access and publish their work in open access, but to say that this is ‘sufficiently’? The ‘academic world’ is any case an international one.

“Currently there are many more opportunities for authors to make their publications available via open access channels without having to pay for publication costs. In part, this has been achieved through open access agreements between Dutch universities and publishers. In addition, there are a growing number of open access journals and platforms that do not charge publication costs.”

True, enormous steps have been taken over the past 20 years. Lots of journals made the transfer to open access. There are (commercial and non-profit) platforms for articles, preprints, post prints – you name it. But are these all for free?

NWO brings up the current OA Big Deals in the Netherlands. However, these deals are mainly focused on hybrid journals. All Gold open access journals from, for example, Springer or Wiley are out of the deal. For these journals, an APC is still required. At present, only the deal with Cambridge University Press includes 20 Gold open access journals.[4]

In addition, the OA Big Deals only cover a part of all the Dutch open access publications in journals. At the moment, as academic community, we are trying to get more insight into this.

Not to mention the diversity of the deals. At Elsevier, it is possible to publish in 276 journals for ‘free’. All other (1800+) are still paid for. It is therefore nonsense to think that there are enough channels for researchers to publish their research in open access? I want to stress here that I don’t want to say that the APC-model is the holy-grail. Far from. But it’s the reality with which researchers are faced.

“Finally, there is the green route, which authors can use to deposit their articles in a (university) repository at no cost.”

Yes correct. And we have repositories for every university for more than 10 years. With varying success. However, for the time being, the government has also been advocating open access through the Golden route (i.e. via journals) since 2013 and above all stating that it is the most future-proof. Not in the last place by the VSNU.[5] For NWO, the Golden route has always been the main goal. In addition, NWO demands immediate open access (without embargo period). This is hardly possible with Green (self-archiving) open access unless NWO wants to force researchers to publish the preprint without peer review? Apparently, they have revised their own terms and policy. This can happen of course, but I find it strange to argue that a fund aimed at publishing in journals needs to be terminated when Gold is the standard.

You could also argue that this fund leads to pushing more money in the (publishing) system. Then I’d like to say, let’s do better with the national deals and not only focus on hybrid journals.

In addition, there is the already mentioned National Open Science Program (NPOS). This plan focuses on three key areas, which are: 1. Promoting open access to scientific publications (open access). 2. Promoting optimal use and reuse or research data. 3. Adapting evaluation and award systems to bring them into line with the objectives of open science (reward systems).

One of the ambitions is full open access to publications. As stated:

“The ambition of the Netherlands is to achieve full open access in 2020. The principle that publicly funded research results should also be publicly available at no extra cost is paramount. Until the ambition of full open access to publications in the Netherlands and beyond is achieved, access to scientific information will be limited for the majority of society.”[6]

In this transition phase. And with this, NWO supported, ambition in mind, the termination of a transit fund (this is how it should be seen) seems a bit premature to me. However, it should be said that the possibility remains to budget open access publications in project funding at NWO. But it is to be seen for how long this will happen considering their response: ‘for the time being’.

Untitled

This post has been posted in Dutch online journal Scienceguide Friday, June 30.

Notes

[1] https://www.nwo.nl/en/news-and-events/news/2017/nwos-incentive-fund-for-open-access-to-end-on-1-january-2018.html

[2] https://www.openscience.nl/binaries/content/assets/subsites-evenementen/open-science/national_plan_open_science_the_netherlands_february_2017_en_.pdf

[3] https://www.nwo.nl/en/policies/open+science/open+access+publishing

[4] http://openaccess.nl/en/publisher/cambridge-university-press

[5] http://www.vsnu.nl/files/documenten/Domeinen/Onderzoek/Open%20access/13330%20U%20aan%20OCW%20-%20%20OpenAccess.pdf

[6] National Plan Open Science, p.21

Interview: Adrian Martin Speaks Out in Favor of Open Access

In the coming period, I will interview a number of researchers about their work and to what extent open access has a role to play in it. The debate around open access is often held on a policy level, with university boards or libraries and publishers. But the voices of those that actually make use of research papers, books and research data are often not heard. How does a researcher or practitioner see the open access movement enabling free online access to scholarly works? How does this affect their work? What initiatives of interest are being developed in particular fields and what are personal experiences with open access publishing? All kinds of questions that hopefully lead to helpful answers for other researchers engaging with open access.

First interview is with Adrian Martin. Adrian was born in 1959 in Australia. He is a film and arts critic for more than 30 years and as an associate professor in Film Culture and Theory he is currently affiliated with Monash University. His work has appeared in many journals and newspapers around the world, and has been translated into over twenty languages.

The interview starts:

Jeroen: When did you first hear of open access as a new way of distributing research to a wider audience?

Adrian: To appreciate my particular viewpoint on open access issues, you probably need to know where I am ‘coming from’. I am not now, and have rarely been in my life so far, a salaried academic. I have spent most of my life as what I guess is called an ‘independent researcher’. I have sometimes called myself a ‘freelance intellectual’, but I guess the more prosaic description would simply be ‘freelance writer/speaker’. So, not a journalist in the strict sense (I have never worked full-time for any newspaper or magazine), and only sometimes an employed academic within the university system.

Schermafbeelding 2017-06-25 om 21.48.27

Latest issue of Senses of Cinema

Therefore, my entry into these issues is as someone who, at the end of the 1990s, began to get heavily involved in the publication of online magazines, whether as editor, writer, or translator. These were not commercial or industrial publications, they were ‘labour of love’ projects, kin to the world of ‘small print magazines’ in the Australian arts scene (which I had been a part of in the 1980s). No special subscription process was required; it was always, simply, a completely open and accessible website. My entrée to this new, global, online, scene was through Bill Mousoulis, the founder of Senses of Cinema and later I was part of the editorial teams of Rouge, and currently LOLA. And I have contributed to many Internet publications of this kind since the start of the 21st century. The latter two publications do not use academic ‘peer review’ (although everything is carefully checked and edited), and are run on an active ‘curation’ model (i.e., we approach specific people to ask for texts) rather than an ‘open submission’ model.

I say this in order to make clear that my attitude and approach does not come from only, or even mainly, an academic/scholarly perspective. For me, open access is not primarily or solely about making formerly ‘closed’ academic research available to all – although that is certainly one important part of the field. Open access is about – well, open access, in the strongly political sense of making people feel that they are not excluded from reading, seeing, learning or experiencing anything that exists in the world. Long before I encountered the inspiring works of Jacques Rancière, I believe I agreed deeply with his political philosophy: that what we have to fight, at every moment, is the unequal ‘distribution of the sensible’, which means the ways in which a culture tries to enforce what is ‘appropriate’ for the citizens in each sector of society. As a kid who grew up in a working-class suburb of Australia before drifting off on the lines-of-flight offered by cinephilia and cultural writing, I am all too painfully aware of the types of learning and cultural experience that so many people deny themselves, because they have already internalised the sad conviction that it is ‘not for them’, not consistent with their ‘place’ in the world. Smash all such places, I say!

academiaopenThis is why I am temperamentally opposed to any tendency to keep the discussion of open access restricted to a discussion of university scholarship – or, indeed, as sometimes happens, with the effect of strengthening the ‘professional’ borders around this scholarship, and thus shutting non-university people (such as I consider myself today) out of the game. Let me give you a controversial example. I use, and encourage the use of Academia.edu. It is the only ‘repository of scholarly knowledge’ I know of that – despite its unwise name! – anyone can easily join and enjoy (once they are informed of it, and are encouraged to do so). Now, many people complain about the capitalistic nature of this site, and everything they say in this regard may be true. But when I ask them for an alternative that is as good and as extensive in its holdings, I am directed to ‘professional’ university repositories for texts – from which I am necessarily excluded from the outset, since I do not have a university job. This is bad! And reinforces all the worst tendencies in the field.

Likewise, I bristle at the suggestion (it occasionally comes up) that an online publication such as LOLA (among many other examples) is not really ‘scholarly’. Online magazines are regularly downgraded by being described as mere ‘blogs’ (when this is not so!), with no professional standards, etc. etc.. But my drive is, above all, a democratic one. I work mainly outside the university setting because I want access to be truly open. And I want the work to be lively and unalienated. A tall order, but we must forever strive for it! So, in a nutshell, for me the term ‘open access’ simply means ‘material freely available to all online’ – but material that is well written, well prepared, well edited and well presented.

Jeroen: Did you ever publish one of your papers (or other scholarly material) in open access? 

Adrian: Well, according to my above context of criteria, yes: a great deal, literally hundreds of essays! I believe I have covered a wide range of venues, from what I am calling Internet magazines (such as Transit and Desistfilm), through to online-only peer-reviewed publications (such as Movie, Necsus and The Cine-Files), through to the ‘paywall’ academic journals (such as Screen, Studies in Documentary Film and Continuum) which seem to exist less and less as solid, physical entities that one could actually obtain and hold a copy of (try buying one if you’re not a library), and more and more as a bunch of detached, virtual items (each article its own little island) on a digital checkout page of a wealthy publishing house’s website! This last point also applies to the chapters I have written for various academic books.

When I taught at Monash (Australia) and Goethe (Germany) universities from 2007 to 2015, I decided to ‘take a detour’ into this world of academic writing – partly because the institution demands or requires it, for the sake of judging promotions and so forth. I do not regret the type of in-depth, historical work, on a range of subjects, that this opportunity allowed me to do. But I am more than happy to be back in the less constrained, less rule-bound world of freelance writing. The university, finally, is all about a far too severe, restricted and vicious ‘distribution of the sensible’ – it tends to perpetuate itself, and close its professional ranks, rather than truly open its borders to what is beyond itself.

One of my best and happiest experiences with open access has been with the small American publisher, punctum books. I did my little book Last Day Every Day with them, and it has had three editions in three different languages there. Their care and dedication to projects is outstanding. The politics of punctum as an enterprise are incredibly noble and radical: people can opt to pay something for their books, or download them for free if they wish. Likewise, authors can take any money that comes to them, or choose to plough it back into the company (that’s what I did, and probably most of their authors do). At the same time, certain professional/academic standards are upheld: punctum has an extraordinary board, manuscripts are sent out for reporting, and so forth. They both ‘play the game’ of academic publishing as far as they have to, and also challenge the system in a remarkable way. I am proud to be involved with them.

Jeroen: You are an Australian scholar, living in Spain, traveling for lectures and conferences and studying and writing about a global topic as film and media studies is. How does free online scholarly content affect your daily work as a scholar?

Adrian: Well, I enjoy an extraordinary amount of access to the work of other critics and scholars, especially through Academia.edu, and through postings of links by individuals on social media. At the same time, the ‘paywalls’ shut me out, because the purchase rates are too high for me as an individual, and I have no university-sanctioned reading/downloading access. As a freelance writer, I have to go where the work is, and where the money (very modest!) is. So that itinerary necessarily cuts across ‘commercial’ and ‘academic’ lines, and also involves me with many brave projects that are largely non-academic, and commercial only on an artisanal scale: literary projects such as Australia’s Cordite, for example.

Jeroen: In your first answer, you already addressed the issues of Academia.edu (and I guess you can extend this to other commercial products with similar functionalities like ResearchGate) but you also stress the need for a good place to share papers and research output. In the sciences, the preprint and postprint is an excepted and efficient standard in the scholarly communication process. Even publishers allow it. Lots of institutional archives (e.g. ArXiv, and SSRN) have seen the light mid-90s. And the use of those repositories increases every year. In the humanities, there is no such culture. Do you think this could change in a time where sharing initial ideas is becoming easier? Or is the writing and publishing culture in the humanities intrinsically different from that in the sciences?

Adrian: You offer a very intriguing comparative perspective here, Jeroen. I have no experience of scholarship in the sciences, so what you say is surprising (and good!) news to me. Perhaps, in the humanities, there has been, for too long a time, a certain anxious aura built up around the individual ‘ownership’ of one’s ideas – and thereby most of us have gone along with this perceived need not to share our work so readily or easily in the preprint and postprint ways that you describe. But I do think this can change, and quite radically, if humanities people are encouraged to go in this direction. One can already see the signs of it, when scholars share their drafts of papers more readily (and widely) than before. I think it would be a very productive development.

 Jeroen: One of the biggest hurdles to take in the next 5 to 10 years regarding open access in the humanities are the costs of publishing. In the sciences, the dominant business model is based on APCs (Article Processing Charges). In the humanities this model is a problem. One of the reasons is that research budgets in the humanities and social sciences are much lower. Other reasons given are that since journal prices in the sciences are much higher there was an urgency to transfer to an open access environment. Subscription costs for humanities journals are much lower.

The majority of open access journals in the humanities and also in media studies have another business model and are often subsidized by institutions or foundations. But subsidies are often temporary. New initiatives like Open Library of Humanities and Knowledge Unlatched come up with different financial models, all aimed at unburdening individual authors, but all of these models still need to prove themselves. Nevertheless, things are changing. How do you see a sustainable open access publishing environment for the humanities, and more specifically film and media studies? 

Adrian: Issues of funding – and money, in general – are vexing indeed. Once again, let me make clear where I’m exactly ‘coming from’. With Rouge and LOLA magazines, we have never received, or even sought, any government funding or any kind of arts-industry subsidy; we have never sought or accepted any advertising revenue; and we have never benefitted from any university grants of any kind. We run these magazines on virtually no money (beyond basic operating costs) and of course, as a result, we are unable to pay any contributor (and we are always upfront about that). This is perhaps an extreme, but not uncommon position.  It was a decision that, in each case, we took. Why? Because we didn’t want the restrictions, and obligations, that come with the ‘public purse’ – or, indeed, with almost any source of ‘filthy lucre’! In Australia, for example, to accept government funding means you will have to meet a ‘quota’ of ‘local/national content’ – and if you don’t, you won’t get that subsidy again. Senses of Cinema has struggled with that poisoned chalice. With Rouge and LOLA, on the other hand, we enjoy the ‘stateless’ potentiality of online publishing – it is ‘of the world’ and belongs to the whole world (or at least, those in it who can read English!). Sometimes we engaged in (perhaps at our initiative) ‘co-production’ ventures, some of which panned out well (such as a book that Rouge made in collaboration with the Rotterdam Film Festival on Raúl Ruiz in 2004, or the publication last year in LOLA of certain chapters from a Japanese book tribute to Shigehiko Hasumi), and others which did not. But I and my colleagues stick to this generally penniless state of idealism!

I was naively shocked when I realised that academic publishers usually fund their open access projects through payments from writers! And that – as I discovered upon asking a few friends – some universities routinely subsidise these types of publications for their scholars. As a freelancer, once more, I am shut out from this particular system. Therefore, my next ‘academic’ book (Mysteries of Cinema for Amsterdam University Press) – ironically, largely comprised of my essays from non-academic print publications! – will not be Open Access, because I cannot personally afford that, and I have no ‘channel’ of institutional funding that I can access. Once again, that’s just the name of the game. I will be very happy when that book exists, but it will purely be a physical book for purchase only!

I have, therefore, no utopian visions for how to fund open access across the humanities board. Personally, I am currently looking into Patreon as a possible way to sustain arts/criticism-related website projects. It’s a democratic model: people pay to support your ongoing work, to give you time and space to creatively do it. It’s not like Kickstarter, which is geared to a single production, such as a feature film project. Patreon has proved a godsend for artists such as musicians. We shall see if it can also work in an open access publishing context.

Jeroen: You are one of the founding fathers and practitioners of the so-called audiovisual essay, a new rising digital video format in academic publishing. Instead of writing a paper in words, a compilation of images offers a new textual structure. Another digital format is the enriched publication; articles or books with data included. One of the issues, besides arranging new forms of reviewing, is copyright and reuse. The audiovisual essay format obviously benefits from images with an open license, like the Creative Commons licenses. This makes it possible to reuse and remix these images. Archives are being digitized rapidly, but only a small portion is currently available in the public domain. Scholars are often not allowed to make use of film quotes or stills in their works. How do you see the nearby future for using digitized media files for academic purposes in relation to copyright laws? 

Adrian: We are in an extraordinarily ‘grey area’ here – appropriately, I suppose, since things like LOLA are (I’m told) classified as ‘grey Open Access’! And the legal situation for audiovisual works can vary greatly from nation to nation. We are in a historical moment when a lot of experimentation is going ‘under the radar’ of legal restriction, or (in the eyes of the big corporations) is considered simply too minor to consider taking any action against. Bear in mind that most critical/scholarly work in audiovisual essays (of the kind that I do in collaboration with my partner, Cristina Álvarez López) is not about making large sums of money; it is still a marginal, ‘labour of love’ activity, just as small, cultural magazines were in the 1980s.

THINKING MACHINE 6

Still from audiovisual essay ‘Thinking Machine 6: Pieces of Spaces’. © Cristina Álvarez López & Adrian Martin, March 2017

This general fuzziness of the present moment is all to the good, in my opinion; we can all enjoy a certain freedom within it (with, occasionally, a ‘bite’ from above on particular questions of copyright: music use, for instance). I speak of no specific works or practitioners here, but much work in the audiovisual essay field happens both inside and outside of Creative Commons licenses. I don’t think anyone should be restricted to using just that. The front on which we all have to battle is ‘fair use’ or ‘fair dealing’ (hence the disclaimer ‘for study purposes only’ that Cristina & I place at the end of all our videos): the right to quote (and hence manipulate) audiovisual quotations for scholarly and artistic purposes, ranging all the way from lecture demonstration and re-montage analysis to parody and creative détournement/appropriation. The fully scholarly publication [in]Transition to which I and many others have contributed – no one will ever call that a blog! – takes full advantage, via its publishing ‘home base’ of USA, of everything that the fair use provisions in that country can allow. And I think you can see, if you peruse that site, how far the possibilities can go.

I very much liked the recent essay by Noah Berlatsky, “Fair Use Too Often Goes Unused” in The Chronicle of Higher Education, which argued that we – meaning not only writers and artists, but perhaps even more significantly editors and publishers – need to be questioning and pushing at the limits of the definition, practice and enforcement of fair use regulations. Too often (and I have experienced this myself) editors and publishers assume, at the outset, that a great deal is simply impossible, unthinkable: even the use of screenshots from movies! There is so much unnecessary fear and trepidation over such matters. Sure, no one wants to take a stupid risk and be sued as a result. But, to cite Berlatsky’s conclusion:

“Books and journal articles about visual culture need to be able to engage with, analyse, and share visual culture. Fair use makes that possible — but only if authors and presses are willing to assert their rights. Presses may take on a small risk in asserting fair use. But in return they give readers an invaluable opportunity to see [and I would add: hear!] what scholars are talking about.”

Jeroen: I want to thank you for this interview.


© Adrian Martin, June 2017

*During the NECS 2017 conference in Paris the session ‘The Changing Landscape of Open Access Publications in Film and Media Studies: Distributing Research and Exchanging Data’ will be held on Saturday July 1st. Download the final program here.

** 15 June 2018: some minor updates in lay-out and added a few links to mentioned projects.

 

 

 

 

 

L’idée de l’Europe au Siècle des Lumières

This blog post was originally posted as an article on the Adventures on the Bookshelf blog – you can read it here. In 1813, Germaine de Staël published a seminal work called De l’Allemagne, which offered a wide-ranging introduction to German romantic … Continue reading

‘Ye shall know them by their fruits’

Read and download Just Managing? for free here. “If you’re one of those families, if you’re just managing, I want to address you directly.” (Theresa May; 13 July 2016) Words are tricky things, and we can all agree that ‘talk is cheap’. … Continue reading

Ownership and Cultural Heritage

This free to read book grew out of discussions about how multimedia technologies afforded scholars new ways of sharing documentation and scientific knowledge with the cultural owners of these collected oral genres. Funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research … Continue reading

Strengthening Democracy Through Open Education

This blog post was originally published by Patrick Blessinger as an article on University World News – you can access it here. Open Education: International Perspectives in Higher Education can be read and downloaded for free here. Open education is … Continue reading

Appel : Les effets des changements climatiques sur la vie, la société et l’environnement au Sahel

Projet d’un ouvrage collectif coordonné provisoirement par Florence Piron et Alain Olivier, de l’Université Laval, avec un comité scientifique (ouvert) composé de Fatima Alher (OSM Niger),  Sophie Brière (Québec), Gustave Gaye (Université de Maroua), Moussa Mbaye (Enda Tiers-monde, Sénégal), Amadou Oumarou (Université Abdou Moumouni, Niger), André Tindano (Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

Objectif

Dans une visée de justice cognitive, cet ouvrage collectif pluridisciplinaire, plurilingue, évolutif et en libre accès traitera des effets des changements climatiques sur la vie, la société et l’environnement au Sahel, tels que vus, vécus et analysés par des chercheurs et chercheuses, des étudiants et étudiantes et des associations et habitants de toutes les régions concernées, du Sénégal à l’Érythrée.

Argument

La circulation des résultats de la recherche scientifique d’une université à l’autre en Afrique francophone est encore très laborieuse, a fortiori avec l’Afrique anglophone. L’enquête menée par le projet de recherche-action SOHA sur les ressources scientifiques des étudiants et étudiantes d’Afrique francophone a montré que les mémoires de maîtrise et les thèses restent bien souvent sur les tablettes des départements et ne sont pas accessibles d’une université à l’autre, alors que leurs thèmes peuvent être très proches. Cette situation freine le développement des connaissances locales et diminue la qualité de la science produite dans ces universités : elle peut être répétitive et moins diversifiée ou innovante que si les résultats circulaient davantage.

C’est le cas des travaux de recherche sur les effets des changements climatiques au Sahel. Au fil de l’enquête SOHA, nous avons appris que les travaux de l’Institut supérieur du Sahel de l’Université de Maroua (nord-Cameroun), qui offre, entre autres, une filière en sciences environnementales avec l’option « désertification et ressources naturelles » (http://uni-maroua.com/fr/ecole/institut-superieur-du-sahel), sont peu ou pas connus au Département de géographie de l’UFR/SU de l’Université de Ouagadougou 1 au Burkina Faso et réciproquement. Pourtant, ces unités travaillent sur le même sujet qui est d’une importance cruciale pour ces deux pays. En effet, de nombreuses recherches montrent bien les effets réels des changements climatiques dans tout le Sahel, notamment une imprévisibilité accrue des précipitations qui perturbe le cycle agricole, ce qui entraîne des migrations plus soutenues vers les villes et bien d’autres conséquences environnementales, sociales et économiques.

Comment circulent les savoirs sur cet enjeu? Les articles scientifiques sont en grande majorité publiés dans des revues des pays du Nord qui sont rarement en libre accès et qui, pour des raisons structurelles, publient très peu les chercheurs et chercheuses œuvrant dans les universités sahéliennes et encore moins les étudiants qui y ont fait des mémoires ou des thèses. Quant aux livres sur le sujet, rares sont les maisons d’édition qui acceptent de les mettre en libre accès. Notre projet vise donc, en premier lieu, à offrir aux scientifiques et étudiant-e-s des régions sahéliennes, toutes disciplines confondues, qui travaillent sur les effets des changements climatiques dans leur pays un nouveau moyen de mise en valeur et de circulation des savoirs qu’ils produisent, à savoir un ouvrage collectif en libre accès, publié sous licence Creative Commons, imprimable à la demande, en tout ou par section.

Nous voulons aussi intégrer dans ce livre les savoirs produits dans les organisations paysannes ou locales, ainsi que dans les ONG : des savoirs empiriques importants, mais qui sont plutôt méprisés par la science qui n’y voit que de la « littérature grise » ou des savoirs de qualité inférieure. Il nous semble au contraire important de revaloriser ces savoirs dans une perspective de circulation des idées et des informations.

Notre conception des effets des changements climatiques est large, afin de ne laisser échapper aucune discipline ou thématique traitée dans les travaux de recherche produits par les universités ou les associations sahéliennes : effets sur l’agriculture, sur l’élevage, sur la biodiversité (plantes et espèces animales menacées), sur l’accès à l’eau, mais aussi sur les familles, sur les migrations, sur l’emploi, etc.

Originalité du projet

  • un ouvrage collectif en libre accès formé de nombreux chapitres pouvant être régulièrement mis à jour ou complétés par de nouveaux chapitres, ouverts aux commentaires sur le web et sous licence Creative Commons (ce qui en permet la réutilisation libre)
  • un ouvrage pouvant circuler sous la forme de PDF (volume complet ou en sections) imprimés à la demande dans différents pays
  • des auteurs et auteures diversifiés : des hommes et des femmes, des jeunes et des aînés, des étudiants et des étudiantes, des chercheurs et des chercheuses, des membres d’associations, de regroupements, de collectifs, des citoyens et citoyennes. La seule exigence : être du Sahel (ou collaborer de très près avec des personnes du Sahel) et être en lien étroit avec au moins une université sahélienne
  • un projet qui vise la contribution de tous les pays francophones ayant une composante sahélienne (Sénégal, Mauritanie, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Cameroun, Tchad) par le biais de leurs universités, centres de recherche et associations; les contributions anglophones du Sahel (Nigeria, Soudan du Sud, Erythrée) seront aussi les bienvenues
  • des chapitres en français, mais qui pourront aussi être traduits dans d’autres langues (africaines ou européennes), intégralement ou sous la forme d’un long résumé
  • un projet qui a une visée multidisciplinaire et encyclopédique
  • un comité scientifique diversifié et une révision par les pairs ouverte et collaborative, visant l’amélioration continue des chapitres.

Processus de création du livre

Ce projet de livre est ouvert à tous et toutes, dans un état d’esprit qui rejette toute perspective de compétition ou d’exclusion. Au contraire, la visée de justice cognitive de ce livre nous amène à vouloir l’ouvrir à tous les savoirs et à toutes les épistémologies, pour autant que cela nous aide à comprendre son objet. Nous travaillerons donc avec tous les auteurs et auteures qui veulent participer à cette aventure pour améliorer leur proposition ou leur texte afin que ce livre devienne une ressource précieuse.

Sur le plan des consignes d’écriture, il est tout à fait possible d’inclure des photos ou d’autres images. Il est également possible de proposer, en guise de chapitre, la transcription d’une entrevue ou d’un témoignage ou encore une vidéo pour la version en ligne, si cela permet à des savoirs d’entrer dans notre livre. Par contre, afin de maximiser l’accessibilité et l’utilisation du livre, nous demandons de restreindre l’usage de tout jargon spécialisé.

La circulation de cet appel dans toutes les universités sahéliennes est cruciale pour respecter la visée de justice cognitive et de circulation régionale de l’information. Pour cela, nous faisons appel à la bonne volonté des uns et des autres et nous mènerons un inventaire des unités de recherche sahéliennes traitant des changements climatiques et des associations qui s’y intéressent afin d’y recruter le maximum d’auteurs et d’auteures.

À noter que la rédaction de ces chapitres est bénévole et ne sera pas rémunérée. La gratification des auteurs et auteures sera de voir leur chapitre circuler et être utilisé au service du bien commun de l’Afrique sahélienne.

Les auteures et auteurs participant au livre seront invités à échanger tout au long du processus d’écriture et d’édition dans un groupe Facebook ou WhatsApp, afin de partager des idées, des références et des premières versions, dans l’esprit d’entraide et de collaboration qui est promu par la justice cognitive.

Calendrier

  • Avril-août 2017 : Inventaire des unités de recherche et des associations et circulation de l’appel
  • 30 septembre : Date limite pour envoyer une proposition (un résumé de quelques phrases)
  • Septembre 2017 – janvier 2018 : Réception des chapitres, travail d’édition et mise en ligne au fur et à mesure (dès qu’un chapitre est prêt, il est mis en ligne).
  • Avril 2018 : Publication d’une version complète et impression d’exemplaires sur demande.

Pour participer

Dès que possible, envoyez un message à l’adresse propositions@editionscienceetbiencommun.org avec votre biographie (en quelques lignes), les coordonnées complètes de votre institution ou de votre association et un résumé du chapitre (ou des chapitres) que vous souhaitez proposer. Ce résumé consiste à présenter en quelques phrases le contenu du texte que vous souhaitez proposer, en l’associant, dans la mesure du possible, à un contexte sahélien précis (région, ville, village, projet de recherche, intervention, etc.).

Les valeurs et le projet éditorial des Éditions science et bien commun

Merci de les lire attentivement sur cette page.

Les consignes d’écriture sont sur cette page.

New Set of Books in Media and Communication Studies Unlatched

The project Knowledge Unlatched (KU) offers a library sponsored model to ensure open access for monographs and edited collections in the arts & humanities and social sciences. Libraries can take part in Knowledge Unlatched by pledging for the offered title list. The KU project started in 2013 with a pilot of 28 books from 13 publishers to create a platform where authors, publishers, libraries and readers could potentially all benefit from open access for books. Authors see their work disseminated on a global maximized scale and in the KU model they won’t be bothered with BPCs. It is a fact that free accessible books have been downloaded extensively, on top of the normal sales of the paper version. Citations are not necessarily increasing, but they will come faster.[1] Publishers can experiment with generating new revenue streams for open access books. Libraries are paying (you could have a discussion on where the money should come from) but in return are supporting open access for books and deliver accessibility for their researchers (online and with a cheaper acquired paper version – see below). And readers can read and download the books for free.

KU is an example of a crowdfunded, or better, consortium open access funding model. This model spreads costs and offers a broad access for books. It is currently the most important platform, and most likely the biggest in terms of scale, offering a constant stream of open access books. But is this model working?

I have mentioned it before in a previous post that some libraries [2] and commentators [3] see that the model could be sensitive to double-dipping and others have raised the the issue of free-riding (non-paying members taking advantage of the open access books made available by paying members). KU is aware of these issues. As Frances Pinter, the founder of KU, points out in an interview: “in order to deal with the free rider issue, we’re giving the member libraries an additional discount. So, when they buy into the free and they buy the premium, the total will be less than any non-member would have to buy for a premium version.”[4] The collections offered are still fairly small considered to the global output but we’re still in the early days of open access monograph publishing. If more publishers are involved and participating in the growth of the entire collection more libraries could become interested as well.

The KU project started in 2013 with a pilot (Pilot 1: 2013-2014). The pilot consisted of a collection of 28 new books (front list) covering topics in the humanities and social sciences from 13 scholarly publishers including the following university presses: Amsterdam, Cambridge, Duke, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Michigan, Purdue, Rutgers and Temple, plus commercial presses: Bloomsbury Academic, Brill and De Gruyter. The pilot was a success and all 28 titles were made available on the OAPEN repository. OAPEN is an online platform for peer reviewed academic books in the humanities and social sciences. In collaboration with the Directory of Open Access Books index it offers services for discovery, aggregation and preservation of open access books and related metadata. Just recently the library passed the milestone of 4 million downloads since it started reporting COUNTER compliant usage statistics (September 2013).

User statistics for books unlatched by Knowledge Unlatched in the Pilot and Round 2 have been published in the fall of 2016 by KU. Just to give you an idea of the impact the Round 2 collection contains 78 books and these titles have reached just under 40,000 downloads. The average download per title (via OAPEN) is 503.[5]

Schermafbeelding 2017-04-04 om 21.34.09

Back to the yearly rounds of open access books. The second round (Round 2: 2015-2016) was much larger and consisted of 78 new titles from 26 scholarly publishers. In this round, the collection was built on five main disciplines, namely: anthropology, literature, history, politics and media & communications. Of course, I’m really happy with the last one, being one of the main disciplines of the KU book lists. This round was a success too and 78 books have been unlatched. 10 of them are dealing with the subject media and communication. This collection of 10 can be viewed and downloaded here.

The third round (2016-2017) includes 343 titles (147 front list and 196 backlist) from 54 publishers. Just recently it has been announced that for this round sufficient libraries have pledged.[6] This means that in the next few months the entire list will become available for free downloading.

The good news is that of those 343 books, for the media and communications studies list, 9 titles are brand new (front list) and 13 books are back list titles (not older then 2 years). I think it is a good move to add back-list titles as well, since we tend to focus on only the new and latest stuff. But as we all know in the humanities and social sciences books have a long(er) life. Publishers of these 22 media and communication titles are amongst others Amsterdam University Press, Duke University Press, Intellect, transcript Verlag, UCL Press, Ottowa University Press and University of Toronto Press. The books of round 2 will be made available on the OAPEN platform. Note that some of these publisher don’t charge BPCs. They see the KU project as an addition to their business model and an option to publish books in open access. Some, like UCL Press and Amsterdam University Press, have a standard open access option for all their books and charge BPCs.[7]

Normally I won’t post links to open access publications, since we have other spaces for this (Film Studies for Free and recently launched OpenMediaScholar) but for the sake of completeness I’m adding the following list of books that have been or will be published in the OAPEN library from early to mid-2017.

Frontlist

Backlist

*Update (05-02-2017): Added more links of books available in the OAPEN library.

Notes

[1] Montgomery, L. (2015). Knowledge Unlatched: A Global Library Consortium Model for Funding Open Access Scholarly Books. p.8. http://www.knowledgeunlatched.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Montgomery-Culture-8-Chapter.pdf 

[2] Blog by Martin Eve: On Open Access Books and “Double-Dipping”. January 31, 2015.

[3] Interview with Frances Pinter, Knowledge Unlatched, January, 2013.

[4] Some literature on this topic: Ferwerda, E., Snijders, R. Adema, J. ‘OAPEN-NL – A project Exploring Open Access Monograph Publishing in the Netherlands: Final Report’ p.4.

Snijder, R., (2013). A higher impact for open access monographs: disseminating through OAPEN and DOAB at AUP. Insights. 26(1), pp.55–59. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/2048-7754.26.1.55

Snijder, R. (2014). The Influence of Open Access on Monograph Sales: The experience at Amsterdam University Press. LOGOS 25/3, 2014, page 13‐23, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1163/1878‐4712‐11112047  

[5] User Statics for the KU Pilot Collection and Round 2

[6] http://www.knowledgeunlatched.org/2017/02/ku-unlatches/ (February 2017)

[7] For a list of publishers active in the field of media studies and their OA models, see the Resource page.

Image credit: Designed by Photoangel / Freepik

Journal Subscription and Open Access Expenditures: Opening the Vault

For years, there was no overview of what the total amount being paid for journal subscriptions was per institute or on a national level, due to restrictions in the contracts with publishers (the famous non-disclosure agreements). The information on universities’ expenditures on subscriptions has therefore been secret information up to now.

With the transition towards open access and the related recent (re-)negotiations with big publishers to have an open access publishing option in their journals, there is a growing attention on the institutional and national expenditures. It is for several reasons that we need to have an insight in these costs to know what the cost-benefits would ideally be if we have a full shift to open access. But above all it should be standard policy to know what is happening with tax-money anyway.

In Finland, The Netherlands, U.K. and at some institutions in Swiss this data have been published publicly because in these countries several Freedom of Information (FOI), and Government Information Act (WOB – in The Netherlands) requests have been submitted, and above all, granted.

The following information is to give you a quick overview of the status and the available data:

Finland

In 2016 information on journal subscription costs paid to individual publishers by the Finnish research institutions has been released by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, and its Open Science and Research Initiative funded 2014–2017 (Academic Publishing Costs in Finland 2010–2015). Since this data is spanning all expenditures, Finland is the first country to release this data for all its institutions.

Schermafbeelding 2017-03-31 om 13.49.41.png

Total costs by publisher

More information on the dataset can be found here and here.

The Netherlands

In 2016, two requests for information have been submitted. The first request arrived on 28 April 2016, and requested the publication of the total amount of the budget that the university has spent annually on subscriptions to academic journals over the past five years and the purchase of academic books over the past five years.

This request has been granted in September 2016 and the subscription costs data has been released here.

Schermafbeelding 2017-03-31 om 13.07.51

Costs incurred by universities, 2015

In September 2016, all Dutch universities received a second request relating to the open access license deals. Since 2015 negotiations started with the big publishers about the implementation of open access into the existing ‘big deals’. Currently the Netherlands is the only country where this is happening on such a united scale. All higher education institutes are acting as one party towards the publishers. Normally the details of those deals are contracted as a non-disclosure agreement but this second request asked for publication of those open access contracts. Just recently it has been granted as well and now contract details  publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, ACS, Sage, Karger, Thieme, Walter de Gruyter, RSC, Emerald have been publicized. [1]

A list of the publishers’ contracts can be found here.

U.K.

In the U.K. Stuart Lawson, Doctoral researcher at Birkbeck, University of London, has done some great work on getting insights in the journal subscription expenditures at U.K. higher education institutions. Not all instisutes are represented, but he managed to collect pricing data of 150 institutions with ten of the largest publishers from 2010-14. The raw data can be found here.

For the last three years (starting in 2014) for transparency reasons he systematically collects the APC expenditures data of several research institutes as well. This data can be found here.

Swiss

In 2015, also after a FOI request, the ETH Zürich published an overview of the costs for journal subscriptions (2010-2014) with the three largest publishers, Elsevier, Springer and Wiley.

Schermafbeelding 2017-03-31 om 13.26.51There is some more data on the financial flows in Swiss academic publishing to be found in this report.

Image credit: Designed by Kjpargeter / Freepik

Québec africaine

Québec africaine. Portraits

Auteurs et auteures : Collectif d’écriture sous la direction de Florence Piron

Date de parution : 22 février 2017

  • Prix de vente de la version imprimée : 25 $ CAD
  • Prix de vente du duo ePub : 10 $ CAD
  • Prix de vente pour les participants au livre : 8 $
  • Cliquez ici pour lire en ligne gratuitement la version html (permet de partager et commenter, chapitre par chapitre)
  • Bientôt le PDF sera téléchargeable gratuitement

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

Le racisme et la discrimination sont attisés par l’ignorance mutuelle. « Qui sont ces étrangers qui viennent s’installer dans ma ville? », se demandent les habitants qui y sont nés ou qui y ont grandi. « Qui sont ces personnes qui habitent la ville où je souhaite m’établir? », se demandent les immigrantes et immigrants. L’absence de réponse à ces questions peut engendrer la méfiance, le rejet et le repli sur soi et nuire à la construction collective d’un vivre-ensemble harmonieux auquel tous et toutes aspirent.

Ce livre, comme l’ensemble de la série Québec ville ouverte, répond de manière concrète et simple à ce besoin de mieux se connaître et se comprendre. Il propose des portraits d’hommes et de femmes d’Afrique subsaharienne qui, pour une raison ou pour une autre, vivent actuellement à Québec, que ce soit depuis 40 ans ou depuis quelques mois, avec le statut d’immigrant, de réfugié ou d’étudiant. Ces courts portraits, réalisés par des étudiantes et étudiants en communication publique de l’Université Laval, nous montrent à la fois les différences, mais aussi les ressemblances entre les aspirations, les rêves, les manières de vivre et les valeurs de tous les citoyens et citoyennes de Québec, nés ici ou ailleurs.

Illustration de couverture : motif de Jane Rixie, design de Kate McDonnell

  • ISBN epub : 978-2-924661-08-6
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : 978-2-924661-19-2

Livre publié avec le concours  d’Accès savoirs, la boutique des sciences de l’Université Laval, du Conseil panafricain de Québec (COPAQ) et du Centre international de recherche sur l’Afrique et le Moyen-Orient (CIRAM).

Dans les médias :

Pour acheter le livre au Québec, par chèque ou virement bancaire, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Le livre est aussi disponible à la Librairie du Quartier, 1120, avenue Cartier, Québec G1R 2S5
Téléphone de la librarie :
(418) 990-0330 et à la librairie ZONE de l’Université Laval (https://www.zone.coop/) (418) 656-2600.

Pour commander en ligne (des frais de port de 9 $ s’ajouteront) :


Version papier ou ePub



Lettre reçue par Florence Piron de la part du lecteur Claude Cossette, professeur émérite de l’Université Laval:

Je viens de parcourir ton beau livre. Un gros livre. Un grand livre ! Quelle belle initiative ! Quelle présentation intéressante sur le plan anthropo-sociologique pour les lecteurs québécois !
 Quelle expérience formatrice pour les jeunes ! On constate d’ailleurs jusqu’à quel point ces rencontres interculturelles les ont touchés. Les ont ouverts. Changés peut-être. C’est assurément le cas pour plusieurs.
La partie Réflexions et apprentissages est riche. Les Réponses collectives braquent un projecteur sur un nouveau « pays humain » qu’ils ont découvert. Les Témoignages individuels sont particulièrement touchants. On voit que, pour plusieurs, cette expérience a donné un nouvel éclairage à leurs études, de perspective à leur métier. De sens à leur vie peut-être !
Sur le plan de la langue, je reste surpris de la qualité générale. Et c’est une belle réussite sur l’ensemble du projet éditorial.
Impressionnante expérience pédagogique ! BRAVO ! Je t’envie de jouer ce beau rôle d’éveilleuse, d’attiser le feu de la passion et de l’esprit critique chez ces beaux jeunes.
Claude

Savants, artistes, citoyens : tous créateurs?

Savants, artistes, citoyens : tous créateurs?

Auteurs : Collectif d’écriture sous la direction d’Olivier Leclerc

Date de parution : Février 2017

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

« Amateurs », « citoyens », « profanes », « non-professionnels », « usagers », « public » ont trouvé leur place dans la création artistique et scientifique.

Difficile à mesurer, cette diversification des pratiques créatives est cependant certaine : des amateurs et des amatrices participent à l’élaboration et à la réalisation de projets artistiques dans le domaine de la danse, du théâtre, de la musique, du cinéma ; des non-spécialistes contribuent à la production de connaissances dans des domaines aussi variés que la botanique, l’entomologie, l’astrophysique, quand ils ne sont pas associés à la conception même de projets de recherche.

Comment comprendre et comment analyser cette diffusion des savoirs et pratiques amateurs ? Sommes-nous aujourd’hui tous créateurs et toutes créatrices ? Des limites insurmontables maintiennent-elles les amateurs à distance des créateurs ?

Les contributions réunies dans ce livre, issues d’un colloque tenu au Château de Goutelas (France) en 2015, proposent des regards disciplinaires variés sur les conditions d’une participation réussie des amateurs à la création et sur les obstacles auxquels cette démarche est confrontée. Des entretiens mettent en discussion des expériences concrètes de participation de citoyens et citoyennes à la création artistique et scientifique.

Illustration de couverture : Vincent Leclerc vinceleclerc@free.fr
http://www.vincent-leclerc-graphic-art.com/

  • ISBN epub : 978-2-924661-18-5
  • ISBN du livre imprimé : 978-2-924661-17-8
  • ISBN du PDF : 978-2-924661-21-5

Livre publié avec le concours du Centre culturel Château de Goutelas.

Compte rendu du livre dans la revue Lectures.

Bon de commande pour achat par chèque en Europe

Pour acheter le livre au Canada ou dans le reste du monde, par chèque ou virement, téléchargez le bon de commande.

Pour commander par paypal ou carte de crédit la version imprimée ou ePub, merci d’utiliser le lien « Ajouter au panier » ci-dessous. Des frais de livraison sont automatiquement ajoutés.


 

Table des matières

Avant-propos Marie-Claude Mioche

Les auteurs et auteures

Introduction Olivier Leclerc

Partie 1. Le temps des amateurs et amatrices

  • La participation des amateurs et des amatrices à la création artistique Michel Miaille
  • Le temps civique de l’amateurat Philippe Dujardin
  • Veduta : la plateforme de l’amateur à la Biennale d’art contemporain de Lyon. Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Mélanie Fagard
  • Politique et poétique du théâtre amateur Marie-Christine Bordeaux

Partie 2. Donner leur place aux amateurs et amatrices

  • De quelques formes de créativité dans le cinéma amateur  Roger Odin
  • Participation, créativité et création des amateurs et amatrices : les gramophiles des années 1920 et 1930 Sophie Maisonneuve
  • Entre le garage, le public et le marché : valuations de la biologie do-it-yourself  Morgan Meyer et Rebecca Wilbanks
  • Contributions profanes et attribution scientifique David Pontille
  • Le droit de la propriété intellectuelle face à l’amateur Michel Vivant

Partie 3. Les amateurs et amatrices dans la création : pratiques, actions, institutions

  • Les Futurs de l’Écrit à l’Abbaye de Noirlac. Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Paul Fournier
  • Le croisement des savoirs et des pratiques. Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Claude et Françoise Ferrand
  • Créer une boutique des sciences au Bénin Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Pierre-Chanel Hounwanou et Djossè Roméo Tessy
  • Le dialogue des savoirs comme fondement de la démocratie scientifique. Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Florence Piron
  • Les sciences participatives et la collecte de données naturalistes. Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Romain Julliard
  • Analyser les ressources du milieu pour une collaboration réellement participative. Quelques exemples autour de l’ornithologie et de l’entomologie Florian Charvolin
  • Les Partenariats institutions-citoyens pour la recherche et l’innovation. Entretien avec Olivier Leclerc Marc Lipinski
  • Associer des amateurs et amatrices à la création? Essai de cartographie. Olivier Leclerc
  • À propos de la maison d’édition

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Appel : Contributeurs ou contributrices à Open Street Map recherchés

capture-decran-2016-10-23-a-19-43-58 Vous avez déjà contribué à Open Street Map? Vous êtes une ou une leader d’OSM dans votre pays ou votre ville?

Un groupe de géographes français lance un appel à contribution pour la rédaction collaborative d’une série de portraits permettant de « donner à voir » les profils, pratiques et valeurs d’engagements des membres de la communauté OSM.

Cette série de portraits (10 à 20) constituera un chapitre de l’ouvrage « OpenStreetMap : portrait d’une nouvelle génération de cartographes » par les membres du projet ECCE Carto. Publié (fin 2017 ou début 2018) aux Éditions science et bien commun, cet ouvrage seracapture-decran-2016-10-23-a-19-44-15 diffusé en libre-accès sous licence Creative Commons (CC BY 4.0).

Pour constituer ce groupe de 15 contributeurs ou contributrices, nous invitons les volontaires à nous faire part de leur intérêt pour le projet en nous précisant les informations suivantes :

  • Prénom, Nom
  • Lieu de résidence
  • Pseudonyme(s) dans OSM
  • Année de la 1ère contribution
  • Principaux secteurs cartographiés
  • Principaux objets cartographiés
  • Tout autre commentaire jugé utile.

Merci d’envoyer ces informations avant le 15 décembre 2016 à l’adresse: eccecarto@cnrs.fr.

Pour plus de précision, lire l’appel complet (version pdf).

Justice cognitive, libre accès et savoirs locaux. Pour une science ouverte juste, au service du développement local durable

epub-justice-cogniitveJustice cognitive, libre accès et savoirs locaux. Pour une science ouverte juste, au service du développement local durable

Auteurs : Collectif d’écriture sous la direction de Florence Piron, Samuel Regulus et Marie Sophie Dibounje Madiba

Date de parution : 15 décembre 2016

En cas de problème d’accès, écrire à info@editionscienceetbiencommun.org.

Résumé :

Fruit de deux importants colloques tenus à Port-au-Prince (Haïti) en mars 2016 et à Yaoundé (Cameroun) en mai 2016 à l’initiative du projet SOHA, ce livre présente en 37 chapitres écrits par 40 auteurs et auteures de 13 pays un panorama des enjeux actuels de la justice cognitive en Haïti et en Afrique francophone. Comment rendre l’information scientifique et technique mondiale plus accessible dans les pays des Suds, tout en valorisant les savoirs qui y sont créés ou transmis? Quel rôle peut jouer le mouvement du libre accès aux ressources scientifiques dans un contexte où l’accès au web est loin d’être généralisé? Les universités haïtiennes et africaines sont-elles prêtes à prendre le virage de la science ouverte pour plus de justice cognitive entre le Nord et les Suds et pour devenir des outils de développement local durable? Comment développer les capacités et le pouvoir d’agir des chercheurs et chercheuses, étudiants et étudiantes d’Haïti et d’Afrique? Articles, essais, études empiriques, témoignages, traductions : ce livre chatoyant, plurilingue, plurinational, donne la parole à des hommes et des femmes de différents horizons qui souhaitent partager leurs savoirs et leurs idées, au nom de la justice cognitive.

Disponible en html (libre accès), en PDF, en Epub et en livre imprimé. 505 pages.

  • ISBN epub : 978-2-924661-14-7
  • ISBN pour l’impression : 978-2-924661-13-0
  • ISBN pour le pdf : 978-2-924661-15-4

Sur le web :

Points de vente :

  • Québec : Librairie du Quartier, 1120 Avenue Cartier, Québec, QC, G1R 2S5 Canada. T 418 990-0330. librairieduquartier@gmail.com.
  • Québec : Librairie Pantoute, avenue St-Jean
  • Québec : Librairie Zone, Pavillon Pollack/Desjardins, Université Laval

Pour acheter directement ce livre en version imprimée, téléchargez le bon de commande et faites-le parvenir par la poste ou par courriel aux Éditions science et bien commun.

Pour commander le livre par paypal ou carte de crédit, utilisez le bouton ci-dessous. Des frais de livraison sont automatiquement ajoutés. Vous laissez votre adresse et recevrez le livre par la poste en quelques semaines.


Version papier ou ePub et pdf




Table des matières

Introduction : Une autre science est possible Florence Piron, Samuel Regulus et Marie Sophie Dibounje Madiba

Résumés multilingues

Partie 1. Justice cognitive

  1. Vers des universités africaines et haïtiennes au service du développement local durable : contribution de la science ouverte juste 
Florence Piron, Thomas Hervé Mboa Nkoudou, Anderson Pierre, Marie Sophie Dibounje Madiba, Judicaël Alladatin, Hamissou Rhissa Achaffert, Assane Fall, Rency Inson Michel, Samir Hachani et Diéyi Diouf
  2. Les injustices cognitives en Afrique subsaharienne : réflexions sur les causes et les moyens de lutte Thomas Hervé Mboa Nkoudou
  3. La quête de justice cognitive 
Shiv Visvanathan
  4. Les sciences sociales à l’échelle mondiale. Connecter les pages
 Raewyn Connell

Partie 2. Libre accès aux ressources scientifiques

  1. Du libre accès à la littérature scientifique et de quelques enjeux de la recherche en contexte de développement 
Jean-Claude Guédon
  2. Open Access et valorisation des publications scientifiques : les dé s de l’Afrique francophone Niclaire Prudence Nkolo
  3. La fracture numérique nuit-elle aux possibles effets positifs du libre accès en Afrique? Essai d’analyse et éléments de réponse
 Samir Hachani
  4. Les obstacles à l’adoption du libre accès par les étudiants et étudiantes du Bénin
 Djossè Roméo Tessy
  5. La bibliothèque numérique « Les Classiques des sciences sociales » : libre accès et valorisation du patrimoine scientifique en sciences humaines et sociales 
Émilie Tremblay et Jean-Marie Tremblay
  6. La mise en valeur par les Classiques des sciences sociales des savoirs produits en Haïti 
Ricarson Dorcé et Émilie Tremblay
  7. Création d’une revue scientifique en ligne au Burundi : enjeux et méthode 
Rémy Nsengiyumva
  8. La recherche documentaire dans le web scientifique libre : un guide en huit étapes 
Florence Piron

Partie 3. Savoirs locaux

  1. La place des savoirs locaux (endogènes) dans la cité globale. Essai de justification
 Dany Rondeau
  2. Expériences de recherche en anthropologie de la santé au Cameroun et aux frontières tchado-camerounaises : lutte contre le paludisme et le choléra 
Estelle Kouokam Magne
  3. Traditions orales et transmission de la pensée philosophique : à partir de Marcien Towa et Henry Odera Oruka 
Ernest-Marie Mbonda
  4. L’apport des récits de vie en tant que pratique scientifique : forme de savoir dans des espaces scolaires d’Afrique francophone subsaharienne
 Marie-Claude Bernard, Jean Jacques Demba et Ibrahim Gbetnkom
  5. Et si la psychologie cognitive pouvait casser le mythe que le Kreyòl n’est pas une langue scientifique ? Judite Blanc
  6. Renforcer le sentiment d’appartenance des communautés par la valorisation du patrimoine culturel immatériel 
Samuel Regulus
  7. Réhabilitation de la fierté de l’Afrique subsaharienne par la valorisation numérique des savoirs locaux et patrimoniaux : quelques initiatives
 Marie Sophie Dibounje Madiba

Partie 4. Université, société et développement local durable

  1. Lettre ouverte sur les Objectifs de développement durable 
Association science et bien commun
  2. Les boutiques des sciences et des savoirs, au croisement entre université et développement local durable Florence Piron
  3. Rapprocher l’Université de la société civile haïtienne : SPOT – Savoirs pour tous, outil de développement durable
 Kedma Joseph
  4. L’Afrique à l’ère de la science ouverte. Plaidoyer pour un Pacte africain de développement pour l’émergence par les traditions (PADETRA)
 Pascal Touoyem
  5. Ce que la science ouverte suscite et signifie dans les universités camerounaises d’État
 Yves Yanick Minla Etoua
  6. Les étudiants, les étudiantes et l’idée d’université : une réflexion pour Haïti Hérold Toussaint
  7. Le Collectif des Universitaires Citoyens, une expérience de recherche participative en Haïti Pierre Michelot Jean Claude et Ricarson Dorcé

Partie 5. La science ouverte, le projet SOHA : analyses et témoignages

  1. Créer un réseau de recherche sur la science ouverte dans les pays des Suds 
Leslie Chan
  2. La science ouverte juste et le projet SOHA au Niger : quelles pratiques pour quels avantages ?
 Hamissou Rhissa Achaffert
  3. Mon engagement dans le projet SOHA : un acte de conviction 
Rency Inson Michel
  4. Mes premiers pas vers la justice cognitive et le libre accès 
Marienne Makoudem Téné
  5. La science ouverte … sur le monde et les autres 
Anderson Pierre
  6. Le projet SOHA, un véritable tournant dans ma réflexion sur la science
 Emmanuella Lumène
  7. Un avenir meilleur est possible grâce au libre accès aux documents numériques 
Mayens Mesidor
  8. Le projet SOHA ou comment la solidarité et la justice cognitive peuvent contribuer au développement de l’Afrique
 Alassa Fouapon
  9. Je monte à bord ! 
Lunie Jules
  10. La science ouverte vue par une enseignante et éducatrice Freinet du Cameroun
 Antoinette Mengue Abesso
  11. Lettre à l’Occident d’un jeune étudiant haïtien 
Djedly François Joseph

 

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Winners of the Photomediations competition announced

After much deliberation, the Photomediations team, together with guest curators Katrina Sluis (The Photographers Gallery), Karen Newman (Birmingham Open Media), and Pippa Milne (Centre for Contemporary Photography), are proud to announce the overall winner, curators’ choices and commendations for the Photomediations open call competition.

We would first of all like to thank everyone one who contributed work. The sheer quality, diversity and creativity evident in each submission made the judging process hugely satisfying for us but equally challenging to agree on our final selections. Every qualifying (licensed & attributed) image submitted to the call will be showcased here on the Photomediations website and we hope will continue to inspire and provide the foundations for others to produce new remix creations and showcase the benefits of open licensing within the creative sector.

Therefore we are pleased to announce the winners:

Overall Winner

a-storm-in-a-teacup_webh-768x750

Mark Murphy
, Storm in a Teacup (CC BY-NC-SA)

By deftly selecting and splicing together two remarkably different images, Mark asks us to imaginatively ponder the physical impossibility of a ‘storm in a teacup’”. (Katrina Sluis)

“Just really beautiful”. (Karen Newman)

Curators’ Choice Awards

Wioleta Kaminska, I Miss My Home (CC BY)

“An ambitious and poetic combining of images, text and motion graphics – which explores what might be the visual language of a photograph on a screen… [T]he submission has resonance with contemporary events in Europe.” (Katrina Sluis)

CM-Brosteanu-The-Haystack_web-300x263 CM-Brosteanu-The-Ladder_web-300x263 CM-Brosteanu-The-Open-Door_web-300x263

Constantin Marian Brosteanu, The Nature of Pencil (CC-BY)

“In the tradition of other artists such as Andreas Müller-Pohle, Constantin has playfully explored the remediation and materiality of historical photographs in contemporary screen culture with the assistance of a Game Boy camera.” (Katrina Sluis)

ezgif.com-resize

Elle Heaps, Muscle Beach (CC-BY)

“The humour that Elle has co-opted here is witty and subtly layered. Her use of a 19th century muscle man, placed on top of a scene that brings to mind Baywatch while giffing through the colours of the gay pride flag, gives viewers a lot to interpret.” (Pippa Milne)

Judges Commendation Awards

Katie Hindle, Blouse (1850—2016) (CC0)
Hayley Pritchard
, Untitled (CC BY)
James Thorn
, Pigeon (CC BY)
Sam Forsyth-Gray
, Scalp (CC BY-NC-SA)
Tara Rutledge
, Moroaica (CC BY-NC-SA)
Nathan Gabriel
, The Flight of the Ava (CC BY)

The new Photomediations exhibition space will be live in time for its launch at the ‘Cultural Heritage: reuse, remake and reimagine’ conference in Berlin.

You might also be interested in the next stage of our project; the development of a set of open-source creative challenge cards that will feature selected Photomediations image submissions throughout the pack – fully attributed, of course! The idea behind these is to build upon the creative jam sessions that we ran across Europe and Australia and offer the cards as tool to use within a classroom or group community setting to stimulate further exploration of open creative practices.

The Photomediations team
photomediations@disruptivemedia.org.uk

Photomediations: An Open Book
Photomediations: A Reader
Photomediations Exhibition Space

 

A Guide to Open and Hybrid Publishing

Or how to create an image-based, open access book in TEN easy steps

POB-Exhibition-banner-guide

The world of publishing is undergoing dramatic changes, with the emergence of new publishing platforms, the increasing need for cross-media content and the transformation of the book into an ‘open medium’. The aim of this guide is to explain the concept of ‘open and hybrid publishing’ and to encourage various parties – students, educators, artists, curators, independent publishers, cultural heritage managers – to become involved in open and hybrid publishing themselves.

Using two case studies of multi-platform publishing projects, this Guide to Open and Hybrid Publishing demystifies the process of publishing online and offline today. Promoting the creative reuse of the available cultural resources, it draws attention to the complex issue of copyright when it comes to publishing written texts – as well as images. It also discusses the various business approaches that ‘open and hybrid publishing’ can embrace.

What’s happening with publishing today?

The rise of new devices, such as Amazon’s Kindle and Apple’s iPad, has facilitated new ways of reading. It has also changed the very nature of the medium that is being read. Desktop computers facilitated a shift to screen-based reading, while laptops, smartphones and tablets encouraged the development of cross-platform multimedia contents. Today it is e-books, tablets and smartphones, more than online newspapers, that are radically transforming the publishing landscape. The UK’s Guardian newspaper reported recently that e-books are ‘on course to outsell printed editions in UK by 2018’. The book market itself is showing definite growth tendencies in respect of both the commercial e-book market and, under the open access publishing model especially, academic publishing market. With regard to the former, ‘The UK consumer e-book market – which excludes professional and educational books – is forecast to almost triple from £380m to £1bn over the next four years’ (The Guardian, 4 June 2014 ).

E-books are only one part of this new ecosystem of reading, writing, publishing, distribution, access and sales. They represent, in Europe, just a few percentage points of the revenue of the national book industry. Certainly, for many publishers these days (such as Penguin Random House or Hachette Livres) expanding their access to international markets on a global scale through e-books is a priority. Yet publishing is no longer limited to the traditional publishing houses: technology companies such as Apple, Amazon and Google have now entered the picture. With their new production and distribution models, and new modes of presenting content, these companies are disrupting the traditional structures – and strictures – of the pre-digital publishing industry. Interestingly, they are also promoting a more seamless relation between text and image.

As for academic publishing, while the shift to digital and the promotion of open access (OA) to knowledge – where outcomes of academic research, in the form of articles, research papers and reports, are made freely available online – is relatively advanced in the sciences, it has yet to become more firmly established in the humanities. One reason for this is that in the sciences the major form of communication is the peer-reviewed journal article, and it is easy to make journal articles available on an OA basis because of the way copyright works for articles: you can always publish a pre-print version online as soon as it’s ready. In the humanities, however, the book (the academic monograph in particular)  remains the gold standard by which academics are measured – and it is more difficult to make a monograph available OA. Yet many non-profit, scholar-led presses which publish open access monographs, such as Open Humanities Press and Meson Press, have emerged in recent years. Mobilising academic labour traditionally given to large commercial conglomerates to become directly involved in the book production process, such presses have challenged the monopoly and business practices of commercial publishers of academic books.

What is the Open and Hybrid Publishing model really about?

The Open and Hybrid Publishing model presented here offers an alternative to the top-down, one-to-many traditional publishing model. It does so by drawing on the availability of valuable textual and visual material under Creative Commons licenses (licences which allow free distribution and use of works). Employing open source software – i.e. software whose code is publicly available for all to use, modify and improve upon – the Open and Hybrid Publishing model offers clear benefits to smaller publishing enterprises, both commercial and non-profit, and also to individuals. The ready availability of material that can be published on an open access basis, the reduced costs of printing and binding, the wide availability of print-on-demand services, and the relative ease of distribution of electronic and paper books, including those that are self-published using platforms such as Amazon and Blurb, means that the primary costs of the future implementation of such projects will have to do with staffing, i.e. with the setting up of such projects, copy-editing and proof-reading them, and, last but not least, with publicising them. But the majority of other costs associated with the traditional publishing business will disappear. This is why the role of the publisher now can be taken up not just by large established organisations and businesses but also by small groups or even individuals.

This expansion and the relative ease of performing this role of the publisher today – blogs, Twitter, Scribd and Academia.edu, etc. mean that anyone can now publish in a matter of minutes – have at the same time generated a need for capturing the attention of the increasingly fragmented audience. This is where the role of the book editor as a ‘knowledge curator’, that is as someone who selects relevant bits of knowledge and directs relevant audiences to it, becomes crucial. This role can be successfully filled by various organisations and groups within the cultural, art and educational sectors – organisations that are not traditionally associated with publishing but that already have established audiences for the content they could offer.

The Open and Hybrid Publishing model can thus be of use to many parties:

  • museums and galleries
  • educational institutions (schools, colleges and universities) and communities of learners worldwide
  • artists, curators and arts managers
  • cultural centres
  • business organisations working with media images
  • individual users (book readers, writers and artists interested in self-publishing)
  • non-profit organisations such as artists’ collectives
  • internet communities with interest in open cultures.

 

How is Open and Hybrid Publishing different from Open Access?

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Exploring the newly arising possibilities in the publishing market, Open and Hybrid Publishing allows users to experiment with different modes of publishing textual, audio and visual material. It also allows for the promotion of alternative, sustainable and resilient business practices for individuals working with texts and images (artists, curators, art managers) and smaller enterprises, such as artists’ collectives and non-profit organisations. This model takes as its starting point the fact that the so-called digital revolution has facilitated the development of new modes of knowledge dissemination and research methods as well as new forms of communication. Digital distribution channels have also allowed for a wider access to academic and other cultural resources – a development that has gained the moniker ‘Open Access’.

Open Access allows free online access to academic research (articles, books, reports, etc.). The scholar-driven Open Access movement emerged in response to academic publishing being dominated by profit-maximising corporations (e.g. Taylor & Francis, Elsevier). While scholars are keen for their work to be read, appreciated and cited, this possibility is being hindered by the gate-keeping business models of their publishers, whereby knowledge is sold at rather high cost. As a reaction to the increasing commercialisation of the universities, Open Access is powered by a belief that access to knowledge and research should be the right of all people and not just a privilege of the few who can afford to pay for it.

The Open and Hybrid Publishing model makes use of, and creates, Open Access resources but it also uses other publishing modes and formats, both online and offline, which can be subsequently monetised (e.g. distribution of an electronic – epub, pdf – version of a textbook or a novel for free, with a paper copy being sold; sales of limited runs of artists’ books to accompany an exhibition or a web project): hence its ‘hybrid’ nature. This hybrid model of publishing allows users to experiment with the overall form of publications and with their business premises. It thus allows for the emergent publishing practices to develop as free educational and art experiments supported by the institutions hosting them, and as sustainable commercial ventures. However, in promoting the socially significant open access to knowledge and facilitating access to cultural heritage, the value of Open and Hybrid Publishing transcends direct monetary benefits.

Building on the approach of Open Access publishers such as Open Humanities Press and Anvil, the model employs a targeted approach to publishing various kinds of materials. It works on a project-to-project basis, thus challenging the traditional ‘one size fits all’ approach. The two case studies presented below – (1) the Living Books About Life online series of Open Access academic books that allow all readers not just to access them for free but also to edit and re-version them; and (2) Photomediations: An Open Book, a multi-site project that combines the online and offline publication of texts as well as images – illustrate the educational, artistic and commercial possibilities opened up by this model. They also highlight many of the practicalities of Open and Hybrid Publishing, including the minefield that is copyright.

In a nutshell: Open and Hybrid Publishing learns from Open Access, it sometimes borrows from OA; it may incorporate OA strategies, but it can also go beyond them, depending on what a given publication and the organisation or group bringing it out want to achieve.

Case Studies

I How can you create a ‘living book’ which keeps growing?

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Living Books About Life, http://www.livingbooksaboutlife.org

Funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (Jisc), and published by Open Humanities Press, Living Books About Life is a series of curated, open access books about life – with life understood both philosophically and biologically – which provide a bridge between the humanities and the sciences. Produced by a globally-distributed network of writers and editors, the books in the series repackage existing Open Access science research by clustering it around selected topics whose unifying theme is life: e.g. air, agriculture, bioethics, cosmetic surgery, electronic waste, energy, neurology and pharmacology.

Editing such an open, living book about life could not have been simpler. After the editors decided on the topic, they had to find 10 or more scientific or science-related articles on it in one of the open access science repositories. They were also encouraged to include some other articles, excerpts, images, podcasts, video clips, etc. – as long as they were available under appropriate Creative Commons licences or, on Flickr, had ‘no known copyright restrictions’ , or as long as permission had been obtained from the copyright owner to use the works in the ways the editors intended.

By creating twenty-one ‘living books about life’ in just seven months, the series showcased exciting opportunities for publishing, in a sustainable, low-cost manner, many more such books in the future. These books can be freely shared with other academic and non-academic institutions and individuals. Taken together, they constitute an engaging interdisciplinary resource for researching and teaching relevant scientific issues across the humanities, a resource that is capable of enhancing the pedagogic experience of working with open access materials. All the books in the series are themselves ‘living’, in the sense that they are open to ongoing collaborative processes of writing, editing, updating, remixing and commenting by readers – although ‘frozen’ pdf versions of the books are also created, to strike the right balance between editorial authority and experimentation. Through this, the Living Books About Life series engages in rethinking ‘the book’ itself as a living, collaborative endeavour in the age of open science, open education, open data and e-book readers such as Kindle and the iPad.

Living Books About Life is a collaboration between Open Humanities Press and three UK-based academic institutions: Coventry University; Goldsmiths, University of London; and the University of Kent. The publishing model behind it – and behind its parent organisation, Open Humanities Press – has been shared with, and adopted by, other organisations, such as Punctum Books (an open-access and print-on-demand independent publisher dedicated to radically creative modes of intellectual inquiry and writing across a whimsical para-humanities assemblage) and Meson Press (an open access press that publishes research on digital cultures and networked media). Its authors would like to encourage some further sharing, adoption and modification of this model – and of the idea of the living book embraced by it.

II How can you redesign a coffee-table book for the Internet age?

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Photomediations: An Open Book, http://www.photomediationsopenbook.net

Photomediations: An Open Book redesigns a coffee-table photography book as an online experience to produce a creative resource that explores the dynamic relationship between photography and other media. The book uses open (libre) content, drawn from various online repositories of open access material, and tagged with a CC BY or another open licence. Through this, the book showcases the possibility of the creative reuse of image-based digital resources.

Featuring a comprehensive introduction and four specially commissioned chapters on light, movement, hybridity and networks that include over 200 images, Photomediations: An Open Book tells a unique story about the relationship between photography and other media. Its online form allows for the easy sharing of the book’s content with educators, students, publishers, museums and galleries, as well as any other interested parties. To collect the images, the book’s editors conducted an extensive search of open image collections and repositories such as Europeana, Flickr: The Commons, and Wikimedia Commons, using carefully tailored keywords  such as ‘optics’, ‘networked image’ and ‘library’. For intellectual property reasons, the images chosen had to be tagged with a relevant Creative Commons licence, or they had to be marked as being ‘in the public domain’ or having ‘no known copyright restrictions’ (the latter being a designation adopted on Flickr: The Commons, when cultural institutions have reasonably concluded that an image is free of copyright restrictions): otherwise it would have been impossible to include those images in the book. The process of searching revealed the extreme wealth of widely available open images and other forms of visual cultural heritage online – many of which can be reused, often in commercial publications (e.g. images tagged with the CC BY licence, which lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon the original work, even for commercial purposes, as long as the original creator is acknowledged).

The book’s four main chapters are followed by three ‘open’ chapters, which can be populated with further content by a variety of users, after the launch of the book. The three open chapters are made up of a social space – a Tumblr blog titled ‘The Book Is Alive’, an online exhibition and an open reader. A version of the reader, featuring academic and curatorial texts on the subject of photomediations, has also been published in a stand-alone book form, in collaboration with Open Humanities Press. A pdf version of the reader is downloadable for free, with a printed copy being available for purchase. All these different publication formats that are part of the project are designed to show what a contested object ‘the book’ has become in the digital area, while also highlighting the hybridity of the publishing platforms and mechanisms that are available today. In an attempt to visualize this state of events, the splash (or front) page of Photomediations: An Open Book is designed to evoke a set of book spines while the navigation around the book mimics a traditional page turning experience. Promoting the socially significant issues of ‘open access’, ‘open scholarship’ and ‘open education’, the project offers a low-cost hybrid publishing model as an alternative to the increasingly threatened traditional publishing structures.

Photomediations: An Open Book was developed as part of the European Commission-funded Europeana Space under its ICT Policy Support Programme. It is a collaboration between Goldsmiths, University of London, and Coventry University.

How to create an image-based, open access book in 10 easy steps

Using the two case studies discussed above, we present behind-the-scenes tips on how these projects came about – and on how anyone can follow in our footsteps to design a similar open/living/hybrid book, either as a free open project for themselves or their organisation, or as a commercial product. Feel free to borrow, share, adjust and improve upon our idea and model.

 1. Choose a platform for hosting your book

One way of thinking about the book as an open, hybrid, living object in the digital age is to reimagine it as a kind of website: a series of linked online pages, held together by a contents list but also by some unique design elements.

The Living Books about Life project runs on a wiki, using MediaWiki software – which is basically the same software used by Wikipedia. Photomediations: An Open Book, in turn, is based a single page of html code. You don’t need an experienced coder to get it done: our html page was customised by our designer from a readily-available module – a Fullscreen Pageflip Layout – taken from the code sharing website codrops. For the splash page (i.e. the front page of our Photomediations site), we repurposed the Image Accordion with CSS3 module. If you can do some basic html design, or have a web designer involved in your project, you can use similar ready-made, freely available modules. You can also get some low-cost help with your website by hiring someone from freelancer, even on a one-off basis.

If you know nothing about web design and have very limited resources, the web software and publishing platform WordPress is the way to go: it’s free, customisable and easy to use. It also provides lots of ready-made templates. You can download it and install it on your own website, or, if you are a complete newbie, you can build your project, and thus publish your book, directly on their site  – in a slightly more limited way though.

2. Develop the right design

To ensure your book doesn’t look like just any old website, you may want to introduce some design features that reference a ‘real’ book – or that playfully remediate its format. (Your can make a book cover and stick it on the splash page or you can insert a page-turning feature into your website). You can pick up plenty of ideas from open source and code sharing websites such as codrops.

It is important that the shape and look of your open book reinforces its content.  In designing Photomediations: An Open Book we experimented with many different shapes and styles of the platform before we settled on a design that remediates the experience of a coffee table book. Its main landing page is designed to evoke book spines and the navigation around the book mimics the traditional experience of turning book pages.

Deciding on the method of navigating through your book is equally important. You should also have an easily accessible contents list, or map, of the book as a whole. Last but not least, you need to ensure that your design is ‘responsive’, i.e. that it works well on different devices and platforms, from desktops and laptops, through to iPads and mobile phones. (Many of the recent WordPress and Tumblr templates are already designed this way.)

3. Secure hosting and a domain name

Unless your institution is able to let you use some web space on their server, your will need to secure some space on which you’ll host your book. Hosting web-based projects on shared servers is inexpensive these days and can be bought from companies big and small. (The biggest ones include Bluehost, GoDaddy and 1and1 – but do look around.) The same companies will also sell you a domain name – like photomediationsopenbook.net – that will act as the address for your book. They will also ensure your book is easily found by search engines such as Google.

When choosing your address, think of one that best encompasses the nature of your project. For us the concept of mediation (‘photomediations’) and the idea of an open book were important components, all of which found their way into the project’s overall title and also its URL address.

4. Decide what types of content and media to include

Your book will no doubt feature still images such as photographs, as well as scans of drawings, paintings and other visual material. You may also want to include moving images. It is easy to embed visual material into your website/book – for example, using the automated ‘embed’ feature in WordPress. Text can be incorporated directly (through ‘cut and paste’ into your template), but you may also want to enhance your book with some pdf material or even with links to external resources. The advantage of the latter is that the book appears more open, reaching out beyond the confines of its covers. The disadvantage is that you have no control over external links: they can become obsolete any time. When using video, to ensure the smooth and speedy functioning of your book it’s best to host video clips on a free external website, such as YouTube or Vimeo, and embed them into your site from there – rather than place them directly within your book.

5. Curate your visual content

It may be helpful to understand your role in putting together on online book as that of a curator rather than just an editor. In other words, you become someone whose task is to organise the deluge of images and other data available on the Internet into a coherent and visually pleasing whole, gathered under a strong concept. Editing such a book is therefore akin to putting on an exhibition.

There are plenty of well-designed, themed repositories of open access material on the Internet from which you can download very interesting images. Most of these repositories have excellent ‘search’ facilities.

For example, to find content for chapter 2 ‘Photography, Optics and Light’ in Photomediations: An Open Book, we conducted a thorough search through a number of repositories (listed in the Appendix), using a variety of keywords: ‘light’, ‘optics’, ‘luminosity’, ‘camera’, ‘apparatus’, ‘eye’, etc. Importantly, we narrowed down our search to images tagged with appropriate Creative Commons licenses or marked as being ‘in the public domain’ (as explained in the section below), so that we could reuse these images in our project.

6. Think about copyright

If you are using images or texts that do not belong to you, make sure you don’t infringe the copyright belonging to the right holder. (Just because something is ‘on the Internet’ does not mean that you can use it…) Always check the licence of the work you find in a given repository. Also, if you receive an image or a piece of text directly from its author or copyright holder, make sure you clarify what the conditions of its use are: i.e. what you can and can’t do with it (e.g. Can you use it for educational purposes? Can you include it in a book you’re planning to sell? Can you crop the image or shorten the text? Can you use the image as part of a banner you are designing for your website?).

There are several so-called open licences that are considered ‘safe’, in the sense that they leave you a lot of freedom with regard to how to us them. As a rule of thumb, it is safest to use artefacts that are marked as being ‘in the public domain’ (sometimes marked as CC0) or, on Flickr: The Commons, images that have ‘no known copyright restrictions’. You can freely build upon, enhance and reuse them for any purposes.

There are a number of Creative Commons (CC) licences that aim to strike the right balance between permissions and rights: read the letters attached to them carefully, and follow the explanations on the CC website, to see what you can and can’t do with each work (some allow you to do anything as long as you acknowledge the original author; others allow you to use the works for non-commercial purposes only; some allow you to modify the work, others don’t, etc. etc.). Two most useful CC licences are:

Attribution CC BY 88x31

This licence lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licences offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.

Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA 88x31b

This licence lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This licence is often compared to ‘copyleft’ free and open source software licences. All new works based on yours will carry the same licence, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use.

7. Write captions – and supply additional text

It is important to always credit the work used – and, in case of images, to provide further information about them. Even if the copyright licence for a given image allows you to skip providing such information, it is good practice to include some further details about the image anyway, as they will no doubt be useful to your readers. This is how we’ve captioned the images included in Photomediations: An Open Book. Our example shows an image we found on Flickr by an author who calls himself ‘Doctor Popular’, which we included in a chapter on ‘Hybrid Photomediations’, as a commentary on new forms of portraiture today:

59Doctor Popular, AntiTagging, 2014.
 Self-portrait taken using the Anti-Tagging iPhone app that anonymizes photos by auto-detecting faces and glitching them out, thus producing a secure selfie. Source: Flickr. Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0.

Even if your book is image-based, you may want to include some additional textual material in it, besides the captions for your images. For example, you may want to write or commission an introduction that contextualises the book. You may also want to include some additional reading material, by way of ‘curating’ (that word again!) your book in an interesting and multi-dimensional way. There are plenty of knowledgeable open-access articles and books available online. Most of these have been written by academics and other experts in the field; many went through the ‘peer-review process’: which means that they have been validated by other experts in the field as valuable and original. Curating an interesting list of texts on your chosen topic is not that different from curating a ‘playlist’ of songs on your computer or phone. (See Appendix for a list of repositories of open access material.)

8. Decide how open/closed you want to make your book

We’ve explained above how to include open-access material – be it text or images – in your book. However, the assumption so far has been that readers will come to your online book the way they come to a traditional book, i.e. to read it, and then they leave it intact. But maybe you would be interested in making all or at least parts of your book open, for readers to add material to the existing content, update it, comment on it, re-mix it or make their own versions? (You can think of it as an educational exercise, an artistic experiment, or simply as embracing the much more creative model of engaging with media by younger generations, where the roles of the producer and the consumer of culture become more blurred.)

For example, in the Living Books about Life project all the books in the series are themselves ‘living’, in the sense that they are open to ongoing collaborative processes of writing, editing, updating, remixing and commenting by readers – as long as those readers have registered on the site first. This possibility of keeping the books open in this way is both potentially exciting and potentially dangerous. There are two main issues here: (1) First, we wanted to protect ourselves against vandalism, and that was an easy thing to do. Each introduction, contents list and attributions list of each living book is also available as a ‘frozen’ pdf file. Also, the wiki retains a record of all the edits, so it’s always possible to revert to an earlier version. In addition, we have a rigorous backing up system, so we have copies of all the books in their editors’ ‘original’ versions – which can always be restored. (2) But there is also a practical issue with regard to some possible threats and opportunities. Our experience is that people (i.e., readers/users) tend to treat any published text, even on the web, as having a certain authority: too much authority, in fact. So, somewhat disappointingly perhaps, the most that people tend to do is post a comment. It’s relatively hard to get them to do much more than that. Indeed, people tend to adhere to fairly conventional notions of the author and the book as an object that shouldn’t be messed around with – which is interesting in itself. But this reluctance or wariness is also something we want to encourage users to get over with this project.

In Photomediations: An Open Book, alongside the introduction and four ‘closed’, read-only chapters on photography and other media, we have also included three open chapters – which take the format of three separate web pages:

  • Photomediations: An Open Reader – a collection of academic essays on photography and other media, which can be edited and expanded upon by any anyone
  • The Social Space – a Tumblr blog called ‘The Book Alive’, exploring the book as a living and dynamic medium via the posting of images of books present and past
  • The Exhibition – a space that encourages users to creatively experiment with images from our book and from the whole of the Europeana online collection of digitised items (or, more accurately, a single gathering place of data, allowing you to access material in a variety of European collections), and that displays the results of these experiments

9. Think whether you also want a printed version

Alongside your web-based book, you may also decide to publish a printed version. This could be the exact copy of all the online material included; it could include a selection of texts and images from your online book; or it could be an entirely new publication, mixing the online material with the newly sourced content.

For example, as part of our work on Photomediations: An Open Book, we entered into collaboration with the scholarly publishers Open Humanities Press to publish a version of our chapter 6 as a separate, stand-alone book. Titled Photomediations: A Reader, it includes 20 academic essays on the dynamic relationship between photography and other media, some of which are not available online. The book, looking very much like a traditional academic textbook, and illustrated with some images, was published open access, as a freely downloadable pdf. Printed versions can also be purchased.

It is very easy to print short runs of text- and image-based books, in very good quality, these days. Companies such as Blurb and Lulu provide their own online software which allows you to design the book for printing, even if you have no prior knowledge of book or web design. They also convert it for you into various e-book formats. You may also want to check out this website: http://www.disphotic.com/book-making/.

10. Get social

It is important to identify your readership by connecting to the existing online resources, be it social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Basecamp, Github) or personal blogs. You may want to attach a Twitter account to your book, so that each day you can publicise a different element from it. However, it’s not just about using social media to publicise your content. If you want to achieve real reader engagement, and get people involved in sharing, remixing and creatively reusing your content in some way, or even co-create content with you, you need to work with existent online communities. You can also attempt to build a new community around a particular educational, cultural or artistic project. See this article on co-creation from the EU RICHES project: http://www.riches-project.eu/co-creation.html.

Appendix

More on licences and copyright

  • Europeana Space – Copyright Tools for Cultural Heritage: http://www.europeana-space.eu/content-space/. Here you can access guidelines and tools for clearing copyright and find information about the development of business models for the creative reuse of digitised cultural heritage.
  • Out of Copyright: determining the copyright status of works: http://outofcopyright.eu/

More on academic publishing For a taxonomy of various forms of academic publications see this website by the Hybrid Publishing Consortium: https://github.com/consortium/publication-taxonomy.

Selected Open Access image repositories:

Open Access Directories (i.e., meta-lists of various worldwide repositories):

  • OpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories) – Authoritative directory of academic open access repositories. Includes a tool to search the repositories’ contents. http://www.opendoar.org/
  • Directory of Open Access Journals – Categorized, searchable links to free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals. There are more than 5000 journals in the directory. http://www.doaj.org/
  • Open Culture – the best free cultural and educational media on the web: http://www.openculture.com/
  • ROARMAP (Registry of Open Access Repository Material Archiving Policies) – Directory of the open access mandates of institutions worldwide, with links to their open access repositories. http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/

OAlogohyb

This Guide was put together by Gary Hall, Kamila Kuc and Joanna Zylinska, as part of the activities of Europeana Space, a project funded by the European Union’s ICT Policy Support Programme under GA n° 621037. December 2015. Licence: CC BY.

A pdf version of this guide can be downloaded from here.

Intervene

Anne Wyman

Anne_Wyman_01 Anne_Wyman_02 Anne_Wyman_03 Anne_Wyman_04 Anne_Wyman_05 Anne_Wyman_06

Aiming to explore the issues surrounding the lack of plants within urban spaces, this series uses the placement of plants to help people visualise how nature could enhance the urban environment. Concrete buildings and high-rise towers can become overwhelming with a constant repetition of shapes and colours. Through the introduction of plants into unexpected places, these photographs enact a visual ‘takeover’ of the city.

Anne Wyman is a final year student of Photography at the Leeds College of Art.

The Offence

Karolina Breguła

Inspired by Polish writer Witold Gombrowicz’s 1937 novel Ferdydurke, in which obsession with youth and the new takes an absurd and unnatural form, The Offence is a short story in the form of a film. The narrative follows a chorus of characters in a provincial Hungarian town, obsessed with tradition and fearful of the unknown. The unassuming hero of the story is a town official who decides to rescue his fellow citizens from their backwardness by an unusual method: with an uncanny understanding of the human desire for perversion, he forces progress through unnecessary prohibitions and restrictions that he knows will be broken. The film is about the paradoxically liberating effects of censorship, capable of attuning society to its needs and desires.

The Offence was shot in Hungary in the summer of 2013, in reaction to a conservative political climate. Like Breguła’s more recent works, it addresses the complex relationships between non-specialist or “uninitiated” art audiences and the abstractions of modern art.

The Offence was written and directed by Karolina Breguła, with cinematography by Robert Mleczko, sound by Weronika Raźna, and editing by Stefan Paruch. It was produced by Breguła and Tamas Liszka.

Chelsea Haines for Guernica

Karolina Breguła, born in 1979, creates installations, happenings, film and photography. She graduated form the National Film Television and Theatre School in Łódź. She has performed and exhibited in places such as the Venice Art Biennale (Italy), Jewish Museum in New York (USA), National Museum in Warsaw (Poland) and Zachęta National Gallery in Warsaw (Poland). She has received numerous awards, including Views 2013 and Samsung Art Master 2007, Polish Ministry of Culture Scholarship, as well as the Młoda Polska and Visegrad Scholarship. She is the author of works such as Fire-Followers (2013), Art Translating Agency (2010) and Let Them See Us (2003). She lives and works in Warsaw.

The Politics of the Office

Andreia Alves de Oliveira

1 Lobby. Advertising agency.

The office is a defining, everyday space of modernity, a space which is far from disappearing. Andreia Alves de Oliveira’s curiosity was not so much focused on what people spend their time doing in offices, but rather on the space itself. Office space is the default space in the lives of professional, corporate, creative, academic, administrative and civil servant workers. It upsets as well as bores people, it frustrates and enervates, it makes people feel inferior or superior, miserable or powerful. It rarely provokes indifference.

The project documents the offices of financial, corporate, and legal institutions based in the City and Canary Wharf in London. These provide an interesting case study not only because they encapsulate a vast body of knowledge, materialised in disciplines such as organisational behaviour, environmental psychology, ergonomics or office design, that has been applied to the architecture and design of offices in general. But they also reveal a contradiction between the visibility of these institutions – occupying imposing buildings in urban centres, with their activities impacting on the whole of society – and the invisibility of the space where these activities take place. Images of such office interiors exist mostly in the form of films, TV series and commercial photographs. It took nearly two years and five hundred companies conducted before the artist obtained access to the offices of around fifty of such institutions, which perhaps explains the general paucity of documentary representations of office spaces.

2Clients’ entertainment floor. Audit, tax, and advisory services firm.

3CEO’s office. Hedge fund.

Alves de Oliveira’s photographs reveal the new, post-Taylorist office, where discipline is achieved through rather subtle, symbolic means: spectacular, richly decorated receptions and clients’ areas which blur the lines between work and fun; colourful, stylish ‘breakout’ areas and staff ‘amenities’ provided as a trade-off for the loss of personal space in the now widespread ‘non-territorial’ offices, where there are no assigned desks; a system of spatial ‘status markers’ – quantity and quality of furniture, décor, amount of space per person, location within the floor and the building – put in place to signal hierarchical relations of power, reflecting wider systems that influence life in industrialised society, where material possessions often signify social status. Although the offices shown are devoid of people, human presence is felt throughout. The low vantage point of the photographs places the furniture at eye level within the frame, accentuating the chairs’ anthropomorphic qualities, making them stand for the people who inhabit these offices. The lower than usual camera height also has the effect of depicting space on a human scale, eschewing the spectacular, pleasing vistas typical of architectural and interiors commercial photography which define the common visual representations of these spaces.

4 Back office. Professional services firm.

5 Copy area. Reinsurance firm.

In their emptiness and neutral mood, these offices may bring to mind what Walter Benjamin saw in Eugene Atget’s photographs of Paris’ empty streets: forensic photographs of crime scenes. Benjamin was referring to crimes that were social and political. Similarly, the scenes here would refer not to individual incidents, but to events that have the capacity to impact on the whole of society happening everyday in these hidden interiors – no less than what could be termed, metaphorically and perhaps less metaphorically, as the crimes of capital.

While questioning how power is exercised through the space in/of the image, The Politics of the Office offers the opportunity to witness photographs of offices that are largely inaccessible to the general public. By making these spaces visible and by addressing them in their totality, the work creates an expanded image of the office that aims to contribute, following the philosopher Henri Lefebvre, to the production of this space – an everyday, overlooked, but defining space of industrialised and service-based society.

6Middle office. Insurance firm.

7 Staff bar. Advertising agency.

Technical specifications
Andreia Alves de Oliveira, The Politics of the Office, 2011 – 2014. 130 photographs, 20 x 30 cm each, with captions.

Andreia Alves de Oliveira (b. Portugal, 1979) is a photographer and researcher based in London. Her practice explores subjects related to contemporary life, more specifically life in Western, service-based society. She is interested in what is around; in the reality she is immersed in; in what makes life here, now.

Ways of Something

Lorna Mills

Ways of Something – Episode 1 by Lorna Mills

Ways of Something is a contemporary remake of art theorist John Berger’s BBC documentary, Ways of Seeing (1972). The project consists of one-minute videos by over 114 network-based artists who commonly work with 3D rendering, gifs, film remix, webcam performances, and websites to describe the cacophonous conditions of art making after the internet.

Curated and compiled by Lorna Mills, this remake is based a four-part series of thirty-minute films created by Berger and produced by Mike Dibb. In the original films, voice-of-God narration over iconic European paintings offers a careful dissection of traditional ‘fine art’ media and the way society has come to understand them as art. This current project invited artists to respond to what Berger called ‘learned assumptions’ about art in dialogue with the camera and the screen in its reproduction. It is, in effect, art about art about television about the internet.

Featuring formal, figural and kitsch practices to videomaking, Ways of Something consists of aesthetically diverse interpretations of Berger’s ideas on looking at art after the introduction of digital media. Ultimately, it turns the highbrow nature of documentary film into a wondrous and disjointed series of alternative outlooks on how artists understand art today.

Artists participating in Episode 1:

Minute 1: Daniel Temkin
Minute 2: Rollin Leonard
Minute 3: Sara Ludy
Minute 4: Rhett Jones
Minute 5: Jaakko Pallasvuo
Minute 6: Dafna Ganani
Minute 7: Jennifer Chan
Minute 8: Rea McNamara
Minute 9: Theodore Darst
Minute 10: Matthew Williamson
Minute 11: Hector Llanquin
Minute 12: Christina Entcheva
Minute 13: V5MT
Minute 14: Marisa Olson
Minute 15: Joe McKay
Minute 16: Carla Gannis
Minute 17: Nicholas O’Brien
Minute 18: Eva Papamargariti
Minute 19: Rosa Menkman
Minute 20: Kristin Lucas
Minute 21: Jeremy Bailey & Kristen D. Schaffer
Minute 22: Giselle Zatonyl
Minute 23: Paul Wong
Minute 24: Alfredo Salazar-Caro
Minute 25: Sally McKay
Minute 26: RM Vaughan & Keith Cole & Jared Mitchell
Minute 27: Andrew Benson
Minute 28: Christian Petersen
Minute 29: Faith Holland
Minute 30: Jennifer McMackon

* Episodes 1 and 2 of Ways of Something were originally produced by the One Minutes in Amsterdam.

Lorna Mills is a Toronto-based new media artist.

For Internal Use Only

Philip Welding

Philip Welding’s new photobook, For Internal Use Only, doesn’t exist. At least not yet. Influenced by the 3D printing phenomenon and Ikea’s flat pack processes, it is a ‘future book’ that you can download – for free – but you have to build it yourself.

PW Bound   IMG_0484

The photographs in the book depict the office workplace, an environment where there is an emphasis on worker productivity. What is evident, however, is that workers continually struggle to fit into this rigid framework, adopting strategies to effectively navigate the working world. Some of these strategies are at odds with the pursuit of productivity and could be seen (by the company) as ‘time-wasting activity’ – or as distraction from achieving the company’s objectives.

©RickyAdamPhoto (2 of 2)

To own the book, you are instructed to print it out at work and bind it using whatever materials are available. To make the finished product an official copy and a numbered edition, a photograph of it in the workplace must be emailed to the address below. In doing so, you are acting on company time, using company resources. Is this just one of many distractions from your agreed objectives? Or just another strategy for workplace survival?

clair_Robins_Book_01

The photographs from the project are only available by downloading the book. The website doesn’t reveal the project itself, but instead shows the photographs that people have taken of the printed and bound book situated in their workplace.

Instructions:
Go to http://www.philipwelding.co.uk/ to download the book. Email photographs of the finished book in the workplace to trajectoriespublications@gmail.com

Philip Welding was born in Leicester, UK, and works as Principal Lecturer in Photography at Leeds College of Art. In 2000 he graduated from Nottingham Trent University, then completed an MRes at Leeds Metropolitan University in 2012. His work fits into a narrative that he has been exploring for ten years in various forms, which incorporates notions of labour, creativity, boredom, resistance and productivity to critique our relationship with daily working lives. Welding was selected to exhibit at Format International Photo Festival in 2015.

The Port

Richard Whitlock

Richard Whitlock, The Port, 2015, HD video, 8 min. loop, ca. 3m x 5m.

The Port is a silent video that depicts cranes loading and unloading ships in the harbour of Thessaloniki in Greece, and people strolling along the quay. At first glance it looks like a normal film, but it is in fact made up of many fragments of looped video and still photographs arranged in a flattened orthographic projection – like a moving painting rather than a film.

This work continues the artist’s enquiry (see Photomediations Machine 18/5/2014) into the effects of non-standard perspective configurations on our experience of photographic images, a viewpoint that has been constrained until now by the perspective of the camera lens. Yet digitalisation now affords the photographer the opportunity to make changes in this standard central perspective. The challenge, taken up in The Port and in Whitlock’s previous work, The Street, is to alter perspective in the moving image.

Many different ‘times’, many parallel narratives, can now coexist on a single screen. The Port has about 40 layers, one for each object, or sometimes two. For example, the sea is not one sea but rather two superimposed layers of waves. Time is thus enriched, being both circular (loops within loops) and multiple (many layers and speeds). This intrigues the eye, giving the feeling of seeing something for the first time.

The objects could of course be synchronised, and made to follow a regular rhythm, like a soundless music, but the artist has chosen to maintain the characteristic irregular pulsations of each type of object, intervening only minimally in the phasing of the cranes and the grouping of the strollers on the quay.

Richard Whitlock (b. Liverpool 1952) has made sculptural, graphic and photographic installations in many parts of the world. Dissatisfied with photography as a means of adequately representing these works, he began making photographs and films in unusual ways, avoiding the central perspective natural to these media. This by-work became a major preoccupation, leading to non-perspectival photographic and video installations in Helsinki, Grenoble, the Crimea, Taipei, Thessaloniki, Athens and New York. He lives in Greece.

Mechanical Calculators (from The Imitation Archive)

Matt Parker

Matt Parker, Mechanical Calculators (from The Imitation Archive), HD Video with Sound, 05 mins 43 secs, 2015

In early 2015 Matt Parker was artist in residence at The National Museum of Computing in Bletchley Park. The museum host the UK’s largest collection of fully functioning historical, vintage computers and artefacts. Among the digital and electronic devices within the museum archives are a large number of pre-digital, mechanical computers / calculators / comptometers. They are manual tools used by accountants the world over from the 1930s to the 1970s, before digital computing technologies took over. The comptometer is a functional tool yet it is utterly obsolete and abstract as a device for someone like Parker, who has only ever known to use a digital calculator, his fingers – and occasionally his brain – to count. Comptometers have varied design schemas, reflecting so many different methods of invention, all with the aim of achieving basic arithmetic with large numbers.

Parker found the idea of grinding, punching and literally ‘crunching’ the numbers to be something to explore, as he placed each item within the vast collection of The Imitation Archive (a collection of over a hundred sound recordings of computer technologies produced during the residency) as a media archaeological exploration into the sounds and functions of pre-digital computing. He explores the sound of each device, woefully misused by a curious but incompetent user, incapable of understanding the logic behind these most logical of devices and unable to programme even the most basic arithmetical calculation. The video depicts the objects with a vintage glow whilst the sound of a ‘digital native’ attempts to perform the same, mathematically basic addition task but struggles to even understand how to wind the correct rotary dials or push the correct buttons.

Matt Parker is an audiovisual composer and sound artist working with and producing archives that amplify hidden connections between every-day technology and the environment. His work is influenced by principles of acoustic ecology, preservation, immersion and saturation. He is a PhD candidate at the London College of Communication within the Creative Research into Sound Art Practice Centre (AHRC funded). He has a Master’s in Music Technology from Birmingham Conservatoire, is the winner of the Deutsche Bank Creative Prize in Music 2014 and was shortlisted for the Aesthetica International Art Prize 2015.

Links:
http://www.earthkeptwarm.com
http://www.thepeoplescloud.org

Photomediations: A Reader – new open access book

POB Reader cover front-small

We have the pleasure to announce the publication of an open access book Photomediations: A Reader: (Open Humanities Press, 2016), edited by Kamila Kuc and Joanna Zylinska. The book offers a radically different way of understanding photography. The concept of photomediations that unites the twenty scholarly and curatorial essays collected here cuts across the traditional classification of photography as suspended between art and social practice in order to capture the dynamism of the photographic medium today. It also explores photography’s kinship with other media – and with us, humans, as media.

The term ‘photomediations’ brings together the hybrid ontology of ‘photomedia’ and the fluid dynamism of ‘mediation’. The framework of photomediations adopts a process- and time-based approach to images by tracing the technological, biological, cultural, social and political flows of data that produce photographic objects.

Photomediations: A Reader is part of a larger editorial and curatorial project called Photomediations: An Open Book, whose goal is to redesign a coffee-table book as an online experience. A version of this Reader also exists online in an open ‘living’ format, which means it can be altered, added to, mashed-up, re-versioned and customized. The Reader is published in collaboration with Europeana Space, and in association with Jonathan Shaw, Ross Varney and Michael Wamposzyc.

An open access pdf version of Photomediations: A Reader is freely available here:
http://openhumanitiespress.org/books/download/Kuc-Zylinska_2016_Photomediations-A-Reader.pdf

Print versions can be purchased from various online bookshops, such as Barnes & Noble, Amazon, etc.

Editors’ bios

Kamila Kuc is Postdoctoral Research Assistant in the Department of Media and Communications at Goldsmiths, University of London. She is also a curator and an experimental filmmaker. Co-editor (with Michael O’Pray) of The Struggle for Form: Perspectives on Polish Avant-Garde Film 1916-1989 (2014), Kuc has curated programmes of experimental film for international film festivals and venues (New Horizons Film Festival, Poland; Experiments in Cinema, US). Her short films have been screened widely.

Joanna Zylinska is Professor of New Media and Communications at Goldsmiths, University of London. The author of five books—most recently, Minimal Ethics for the Anthropocene (2014); Life after New Media: Mediation as a Vital Process (with Sarah Kember, 2012) and Bioethics in the Age of New Media (2009)—she is also a translator of Stanislaw Lem’s major philosophical treatise, Summa Technologiae (2013). Zylinska is one of the Editors of Culture Machine, an international open-access journal of culture and theory, and a curator of Photomediations Machine. She combines her philosophical writings and curatorial work with photographic art practice.

Faders

Caroline Abbotts

image1Faders, Unique iron blue-toned silver gelatin paper exposed to moonlight, UV fluorescent lighting, 2015

image2Faders, detail

image3Faders, detail

image4Faders, unique iron blue-toned silver gelatin paper exposed to moonlight, UV fluorescent lighting, 2015

Faders (2015) explores the relationship between natural, chemical and material environments. The works build their own ecology that contemplates the measurable and the immeasurable.

The artist exposed each piece of silver gelatin paper over different time lengths to ambient moonlight. The shadows on the paper unravel the angle at which light has fallen across its surface, disclosing folds or gentle dimples in the paper marked by light. The paper has been developed and soaked in a bath of iron blue toner. The toner replaces the silver in the paper with iron blue while iron sensitises the surface to UV light. The works are hung intermittently under a pink glowing UV light, causing each to begin a process of darkening from vivid blue to black.

The gloss blue surface refers to scenes elsewhere of perhaps a deep ocean blue captured in an underwater environment. The work presents a vision of materiality that considers light passing through surface. This is repeated again and again, as shadows reflect off the gloss surface lit by the pink UV light above.

The works explore their own life cycle as they fade from light to dark through midtones, each piece becoming its own component in response to the atmospheric conditions. It is through the work’s relationship to daylight and moonlight that it functions and malfunctions.

Caroline Abbotts (b. 1988 Derbyshire, England) studied at the Central Saint Martin’s School of Art and is a recent graduate of the Royal Academy Schools. She lives and works in London.

There/Then: Here/Now

Photographic Archival Intervention within the Edward Chambré hardman Portraiture Collection (1923-63)

Keith W. Roberts

29 Gemmell John Esq - 28571 - 1935         30 Gemmell John Lieutenant - 88068 - 1947 47 Laird D Esq - 28585 - 1935           48 Laird D Major - 80603 - 1945 73 Thomas H S G Reverend - 41067 - 1940     74 Thomas H S G Captain - 46258 - 1941

Intermission Portraits (1. Gemmell John Esq; 2. Gemmell John Lieutenant; 3. Laird D Esq; 4. Laird D Major; 5. Thomas H S G Reverend; 6. Thomas H S G Captain)

The following text has been written to explain the reasoning and purpose behind the contemporary use, display and presentation of a selection of commercial portraiture created by Edward Chambré Hardman between 1923-63, through research I have conducted within the parameters of a practice-based doctorate. Through the use of a recently created database, patterns have been revealed within this forty-year period of commercial portraiture practice. It has therefore now been possible to identify and extract individual sitters, who have had their portraits taken by Hardman at several different points in time, and to re-present these portraits as pairings, seen for the first time together. Through viewing these portraits together, an emphasis is placed upon the gap that exists in time between the two points at which both portraits were created. This gap can be described as an intermission of time, therefore the portrait pairings are referred to throughout the rest of the text as Intermission Portraits. The portrait pairings will be seen through various exhibitions that have been planned in and around the Liverpool area over the forthcoming year, including The Hornby Room at the Liverpool Central Library from 1st December 2015 to 1st March 2016, The Well and Central Space at Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, The Discovery Rooms at Hardman’s House on Rodney Street, the ‘Hidden Upstairs Rooms’ on Bold Street in Liverpool as part of the Bold Street Project. In addition to this, a projection piece has been planned for the 2016 Liverpool Biennial, using the Bold Street facing street windows in Matta’s International Foods shop, which is the actual physical space where the portraits were originally taken. Lastly, an exhibition of forty pairings has been planned for the middle of 2016 at the Williamson Art Gallery in Birkenhead. More recently, a self-published artist’s book has been created to show the pairings together in book format.

Through the public presentation of these paired portraits, their status has been altered in terms of shifting them from being both anonymous and hidden within the archive, to being named and on public display. There is also a shift within the original function of these portraits, which was initially of a commercial nature for Hardman and a personal or private nature for his client, to a non-commercial public display function for the purposes of this project. It is acknowledged that this shift in function may not present an impact upon the majority of the spectators viewing the newly re-presented works, but that there is a possibility some of the spectators might be related to the sitters in some capacity, given that the sitters predominantly came from Liverpool and that the pairings are being shown within this region.

As negatives within an archive, they have the potential to be unseen triggers for personal memory, but they actually remain dormant until found, extracted and activated by me for re-use within a contemporary public context. Their status in the archive, held in the negative form, means they don’t even qualify as being a finished Hardman print, as what might be found on display within the homes of the sitters ancestors. This moving in status, of becoming dormant through being sat in an archive and then suddenly becoming active due to my intervention, is significant as the works are decomposing and, given time, will cease to exist entirely. To this end, I am creating new contemporary images from the dormant archival negatives, which carry a trace back to the existence of the person they represent within the past, for subsequent use in the present. After this intervention, the physical negatives are placed back into the archive and thus become once again dormant historical artifacts, treated as precious objects, never touched directly by human hand. As displayed portraits within a contemporary setting, the images affirm a past existence and represent what no longer exists, which is what Roland Barthes referred to as Ça a été or ‘what has been’.

It is my intention that in viewing these portraits, the spectator becomes the common denominator between the three points in the process of observation. The spectator can either choose to view the first or the second image independently, but the fact that they have been presented together as a pair can never be overlooked. By viewing the images side by side and either traversing between the pair, or even trying to take in both simultaneously, there is an attempt to place the emphasis upon the physical gap in time. Assuming that the spectator holds no personal connection or knowledge of the subjects depicted in the portraits, the gap is simply a period of time, hidden within the studio register records held about the pair of images, which simply indicates when the two images were physically taken. In viewing the portraits pairings, I am suggesting that the spectator inadvertently becomes part of this triangular equation, the angle of which is not defined by the physical distances between the three points of the triangle. Rather, the angle is determined conceptually through the passing of time specified by when the two portraits were actually created by Hardman, which will be highlighted through the dates included in the supporting literature relating to the displayed portraits.

The uncertainty of what happened to the sitters between the two points in time is important to the practice of re-presenting the portraits. The images of the servicemen in particular can act as a ceremonial portrait, signifying the precise moment being recorded by the photograph, making a connection between the personal life of the sitter to the public event of war. Some of the servicemen subjects depicted in the portraits present a melancholy reluctance about them; an apprehension that speaks out to the spectator from beyond the grave. Some of the subject’s eyes often look fear-stricken and preoccupied, as if the subject was aware of the fact this image might become their final parting gift and remain their most accurate and truest likeness for eternity. The sitters look uncomfortable and restricted in their uniforms, conveying a seriousness about their position and predicament. They often show what might be considered a very real fear of their own mortality, with the final click of Hardman’s shutter possibly becoming their last picture they will ever experience, thus signifying its importance. Many of them are young men in their early twenties, thrust into a position of power, saddled with the burden and weight of expectancy of a nation at war. Their obligation is evident and inescapable and their duty is unquestionable. Many of these young adults will not have previously travelled far, but now await their postings to foreign lands torn apart by conflict, with the possibility of never returning.

The portraits only allow the viewers in as temporary spectators, offering the illusion of being a simple transcription of something that was real. We are not completely invited into the familial gaze here, and there is nothing in these family portraits that reveals anything about the complicated histories of the subjects depicted. They say as much about the person whose memory is being triggered as about the person being remembered. It is this potential lack of direct connection between the spectator and subject that is important to the practice of showing the portraits, as the entire process of identification and extraction from the archive relies upon as a series of specific conditions being met (e.g. a returning client and the corresponding located negative).

As present from the beginning of the medium, photographic portraiture quickly became the family’s primary method of self-knowledge and representation. The family portrait is the physical means through which family memory can be triggered through documentation and aided by conversation, and thus perpetuated for future generations. For Barthes, the portrait is the optimal medium through which to consolidate the past and recall it to the present. He argues that it connects all those that look at it in one way or another. This mutual look of a subject looking at an object, who is a subject looking back at an object, helps to explain this direct address to the viewer. This direct address captures the gaze of a person recorded in a portrait, looking out of the frame ‘directly’ at the viewer. The eyes of the subjects specifically within these Hardman portraits have a distinctive clarity and brightness about them, trapping the viewer’s gaze. Hardman clearly controlled the portraiture session, during which normally one of the portraits depicts the subject directly addressing the camera. There is a demonstration of the balance of power evident in these direct address portraits, one which can temporarily be lent to the viewer.

Marianne Hirsch (1999) states that the conventionality of a family portrait provides a space of identification, thus bridging the gap between viewers who might be personally connected to the subjects with those who are not. Affiliative familial looking is available to any viewer of these paired portraits and is the vehicle through which to connect viewers of different backgrounds to one another. In terms of style, these portraits are ubiquitous and most families will have similar images within their family albums. I would therefore argue that there is already a familiarity afforded by them to the spectator, and it is this initial recognition that might trigger individual and personal memory. The timing of WW2 falls into the middle of the period of Hardman’s commercial practice and, as such, creates this central ‘mid-conflict’ period. The types of pairing are not all the same, as some will fall ‘pre-conflict’ and some ‘post-conflict’. What is always consistent within the pairings is that the left-hand portrait will always precede the right-hand one in terms of chronology. I would also argue that the pairings that fall into the pre-conflict / mid-conflict category are the most likely to trigger a shared memory and therefore offer a connection between spectators of different backgrounds.

These portraits are proof of life and continuity and thus themselves become an emblem of survival. By being pulled out from a personal, private and enclosed audience, and into an open and public arena, the meaning of these portraits changes for the viewer. The original purpose of these portraits was to serve as a trigger for memory within the familial setting, but now, through public display, they serve as a ghostly revenant, poised on the edge between memory and postmemory as defined by Hirsch (2012). Postmemory is distinguished from memory by generational distance, and from history by deep personal connection. Postmemory characterizes the experience of those who grew up dominated by narratives that preceded their own birth. Photographs have an umbilical connection to life, they can connect first and second generations’ remembrance. Hirsch has used the construct of postmemory predominantly in relation to a traumatic narrative, but my project intends to widen its meaning in order to include any potential story that might be used in relation to the gap in time being highlighted by the portrait pairings. It is argued that the spectators of the portraits will respond to what they see, as there is a common familial connection evident within the portraits, even without a potential physical or ancestral connection. As client family portraits, these images have historically spent their time located within a contradictory space somewhere between the fiction of an ideal family life and the factual reality of that family, with all its challenges and difficulties. They might depict people from the past, but how they are now being used is very much about the today and the present, in line with how we define the photographs’ ability to trigger a memory from the past in the here and now.

By pairing these portraits of the same individual subject, photography’s ability to ‘freeze’ or ’capture’ a moment in time is also complicated, as two points within an individual’s timeline have been presented simultaneously. Both portraits work together in highlighting a missing block of time present between the two points at which the images were created. Therefore, the motives behind making these portraits are similar for both the subject and the photographer, in that their intentions are essentially to create a vehicle of remembrance. Many of these subjects faced the very real prospect of not returning from war and were actually ‘killed in action’ (KIA), thus these portraits could be described for some as a parting gift. From the photographer’s perspective, there was clearly a desire to ensure the survival of the collection, rather than to simply destroy that which no longer served a commercial function. I believe that the more striking direct-address portraits of pre-war servicemen have a look of real apprehension about them, which cannot be either overlooked or disguised.

In summary, the objective of the project is, first, to raise the profile of this component of Hardman’s archive (as compared to the better known components, such as the landscapes or topographical cityscapes), through extracting selected portraits from the archive and thus altering their original function. Second, it is to show these portraits to the communities from where they first originated, before they have physically decomposed to an extent where they no longer can be viewed or seen. Thirdly, through the use of a database created specifically for the project, it is to allow the identification of patterns to be revealed in the archive and thus to support a contemporary creative response and intervention within the archive. Then finally, it is to explore the difficulties and challenges associated with working in a photographic archive of this nature, while having to deal with the institutions and agencies who are reluctant to allow any access or publication of the materials held therein.

References

Barthes, R (2000) Camera Lucida : Reflections on Photography. Minneapolis and London: Vintage. First published in 1981.

Duerden, M. & Grant, K. (2013) Doubletake. Liverpool: Liverpool John Moores University Press.

Gibbon, J. (2011) Contemporary Art and Memory: Images of Recollection and Remembrance. New York: IB Tauris & Co Ltd.

Hirsch, M. (1999) The Familial Gaze. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Hirsch, M. (2012) Family Frames: Photography, Narrative and Postmemory. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Keith W Roberts has been the Programme Leader for the B.A. (hons) in Photography at St Helens College for the last ten years. He is a photographic practitioner, educator and researcher, having had his images published and exhibited both nationally and internationally since 1990. The Hardman Intermission Portraits project is a component of the creative output from a practice based PhD Roberts has been engaged within at Manchester Metropolitan University since 2010.

Haïtiennes. Portraits de femmes militantes

haitiennes_final_sketch epubAuteurs : Collectif d’auteurs et d’auteures, sous la direction de Ricarson Dorcé et Émilie Tremblay

Collection Portraits de femme

Date de parution : décembre 2015

Résumé : Il y a des femmes qui ont marqué et marquent encore la vie sociale, politique et culturelle d’Haïti : des femmes scientifiques, journalistes, militantes féministes, défenseures des droits humains, politiciennes, écrivaines… Malheureusement, nombre de ces femmes, en dépit de leur implication, de leur courage et de leur détermination, sont tombées dans l’oubli, car l’histoire officielle haïtienne a été, dit-on, écrite par des hommes et pour des hommes, reflétant l’infériorisation de la féminité dans la société haïtienne.

C’est pour contrer cet oubli que ce livre collaboratif, écrit par des femmes et des hommes, présente les portraits de quinze femmes haïtiennes de différentes époques qui ont contribué, chacune à leur manière, à construire Haïti ou à mieux la comprendre.

Disponible en html (libre accès), en PDF, en ePub, en livre imprimé

ISBN epub : 978-2-924661-05-5
ISBN pour l’impression : 978-2-924661-04-8

Dans les médias : «Haïti et ses femmes », mars 2017, en ligne à http://www.lenational.org/haiti-et-ses-femmes/

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25%-os akció nyomtatott könyveinkre

Az internetes vásárlás napjától kezdve Karácsonyig bezárólag 25%-os árengedményt adunk minden nyomtatott kötetünkre! Igen, kivétel nélkül mindre (miközben e-könyveink természetesen továbbra is ingyenesen letölthetőek). Ha egy jelre várt – ez az 😉

Íme az akcióban részt vevő kötetek listája:

A vásárlás véglegesítésénél a következő kódot használja a CreateSpace online felületén: ZUH2NP87

#secrecymachine. The Politics and Practices of Secrecy

In contemporary liberal democracies there is a polarisation between ideals of transparency – borne out in open government legislation, freedom of information, and confessionary culture – and what we might call a secret sphere, an institutionalised commitment to covert security operations that exist beyond the public view. In the wake of the Snowden revelations about the surveillance capabilities of intelligence agencies around the globe, an interdisciplinary symposium gathered experts to discuss the place and implications of secrecy in contemporary cultural politics. Speakers addressed what was politically, ethically, socially and ontologically at stake in cultures of secrecy at the individual, national, and international level. Recordings from the event were hidden across some of the darkest corners of the world wide web and were revealed to participants through a series of leaks and revelations starting on the 8th October 2015 at 12 Noon GMT. All of the leaks were revealed to the public on 9th October 2015 at 1102Hrs GMT. They are available as podcasts here: http://immersivestorylab.com/secret/leaks/

You can also download the materials from the symposium via a torrent. Distributing this will help our secrets remain permanently in the network. To use it please install a torrent client such as Bittorrent

20% kedvezmény nyomtatott köteteink árából

Itt a nyár, ideje feltölteni a polcokat nagyszerű olvasmányokkal – olyasmikkel, amelyek kitartanak az új tudós szemeszter beköszöntéig is! Hogy ne terheljük meg a pénztárcát, 20%-os kedvezményt adunk Print-on-Demand, azaz nyomtatott könyveink árából (és természetesen e-könyveink továbbra is ingyenesen letölthetőek maradnak).

Íme a lista azokról a könyvekről, amelyek kedvezményesen beszerezhetőek augusztus 31-ig:

Megrendelésnél a következő kóddal lehet érvényesíteni a kedvezményt a CreateSpace oldalán: BELY9A54

Recursive Historiographical Work and the Responsibility of the Historian: Adrian Johns

This interview with historian Adrian Johns by Janneke Adema focuses on historical efforts to redefine print's past, on the  relationship between technology, science and knowledge, and on our responsibility and performativity as historians. The interview was conducted on March 20th 2015 at the Total Archive Conference at Cambridge University, UK. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Technogenesis and Media Specific Analysis: N. Katherine Hayles

This interview with literary scholar N. Katherine Hayles by Janneke Adema focuses on Hayles's concepts of technotext and intermediation, her views on technogenesis and agency, and her proposal for media specific analysis. The interview was conducted on March 20th 2015 at the Total Archive Conference at Cambridge University, UK. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Software Theory – Federica Frabetti

Interview with media theorist Federica Frabetti by Janneke Adema. The interview focuses on Frabetti's recently published monograph Software Theory: A Cultural and Philosophical Study. Topics of conversation include the materiality of software, code and writing, deconstructive readings of technology, the originary technicity of the (post)human, and the politics and ethics of software. This interview was conducted on February 23rd 2015 at Oxford Brookes University. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Radnóti eklógái – megjelent!

Eclogues and Other PoemsWe are proud to announce our latest release: Miklós Radnóti’s Eclogues and Other Poems, translated by Jack Roberts. Born in Budapest in 1909, Radnóti began publishing his poems and translations while still a university student. By the late 1930’s, he had established himself as a major new voice in magyar poetry. His life ended in 1944 not far from the village of Abda, where, a short distance from the banks of the Rába, he was slain by his captors near the end of a forced march that had begun in the mountains of Serbia months before. Many of the poems included here were composed during his captivity in the labor camp whose name appears at the end of several eclogues and other poems.

The translator, Jack Roberts is author of A Life Less Damnable and Having Said That, also published by AMERICANA eBooks.

More information & download »

A színpadtól a színpadig

Örömmel mutatjuk be legfrissebb kötetünket, a hiánypótló A színpadtól a színpadig. Válogatás Marvin Carlson színházi írásaiból című könyvet Kurdi Mária és Csikai Zsuzsa szerkesztésében! A kötet fejezetei Marvin Carlson öt könyvéből és két tanulmányából közölnek részleteket, illetve további két tanulmányt teljes egészben közre adnak magyar fordításban. Ezek a szövegek 1990 és 2011 között születtek és keresztmetszetet nyújtanak az ezredforduló színháztudományának olyan kérdéseiről és folyamatairól, mint a színházszemiotika, interkulturalitás, többnyelvűség a színpadon, a történelem újrajátszásai, az előadás eseményszerűsége és a performanszok világa a posztstrukturalista elméletek kontextusában. Marvin Carlson adatokkal és tanácsokkal segítette a vállalkozást, továbbá a válogatásban érdeklődésük, tanulmányaik és a potenciális olvasók általuk feltételezett igényeinek megfelelően nagy segítségére voltak a szerkesztőknek maguk a fordítók is. Egyetemi oktatók, fiatal kutatók, doktori hallgatók és mesterszakos diákok alkotják a fordítói gárdát. Kiadó, szerkesztők és fordítók közösen reméljük, hogy a szövegek hasznára lesznek mind a színházzal foglalkozó szakembereknek és tanároknak, mind a színházi tanulmányokat folytató, graduális és posztgraduális diákoknak, valamint a színházat szerető olvasóknak általában is.

További információ és letöltés »

Having Said That – a new book by Jack Roberts

Having Said ThatWe are proud and happy to bring you the new Jack Roberts book, Having Said That, that contains a previously unreleased short story (Re: Bright Goddess, At Your Rising) and a collection of twenty-nine poems (including “River Blindness,” “Dream Fox,” and “Margitszigeten”). We worked directly from the author’s original manuscripts and adjusted the layout and design of the collection to fit that of the novel, A Life Less Damnable, to provide the sense of contiguity in Roberts’ works. We are now working on his translations of Miklós Radnóti’s Eclogues, expected to be released in early 2015. Having Said That is avaliable – as usual – in two ebook formats (.epub & .mobi) for free, under the Creative Commons license, and can be ordered in print from CreateSpace and Amazon.

Speculative Computing and the Aesthetics of the Humanities: Johanna Drucker

This interview with visual and cultural theorist and practitioner Johanna Drucker by Janneke Adema focuses on Drucker's work as a scholar and practitioner, speculative computing, the difference between aesthesis and mathesis in Humanities knowledge production, and the concept of performative materiality. The interview was conducted on November 16th, 2013, at the Library of Birmingham in Birmingham, UK. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

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A Life Less Damnable – out now!

We are proud to present A Life Less Damnable by Jack Roberts – a detective novel set in Szeged, in the South of Hungary in 2000. It tackles the symbiosis of political and personal life in post-Communist Hungary in a university context in an intricate manner, seasoned with ‘local color’ and political intrigue.

The novel comes in the usual ebook versions (mobi and epub) that can also be downloaded as a torrent bundle, but we also offer a paperback version. Head over to the book’s page now to get your copy and start reading today!

(Ez a kötet csak angol nyelven érhető el!)

Felhívás a tudományos e-könyvek hivatkozási rendszerének egységesítésére

Az AMERICANA eBooks-nál nagyon is tisztában vagyunk azzal, hogy az egyik legnagyobb probléma az e-könyvek tudományos használatát illetően az, hogy körülményes az ilyen kiadványokra történő hivatkozás: a tipikus e-könyv természetéből adódóan ugyanis nem oldalakra tagolódik, hanem rugalmasan, az olvasó beállításainak megfelelően újratördeli a szöveget, így kényelmesebb, felhasználó- és olvasóbarátabb formában jeleníti meg a tartalmakat. A liberálisabb szemlélet szerint az e-könyves tartalomra ugyanúgy kell hivatkozni, mint bármelyik másik digitális formátumra, például online megjelent szövegre, vagyis meg kell adni a szokásos könyvészeti adatokat, kivéve persze az oldalszámot, és jelezni kell, hogy a hivatkozás egy elektronikus formátumra történt. Vannak azonban szigorúbb szemléletek is, amelyek egészen pontos hivatkozást követelnek meg – elvárják az adott fejezet, rész, illetve bekezdés megjelölését, amennyiben az oldalszám nem releváns. Bár viszonylag könnyedén kiszámolhatja bárki egy adott fejezetben a hivatkozni kívánt bekezdés sorszáma, az AMERICANA eBooks-nál úgy véljük, ezt a folyamatot annyira egyszerűvé, magától értetődővé, kézenfekvővé kell tenni az olvasó számára, amennyire az lehetséges. Ennek érdekében egy kezdeményezést indítunk útjára: tudományos szakkönyvek kiadóit várjuk, hogy csatlakozzanak hozzánk, és kódoljuk bele könyveinkbe a bekezdések számozását, hogy a hivatkozások megoldása ne legyen többé kérdés az e-könyvekkel kapcsolatban. Ennek elősegítése érdekében egy kis CSS kódrészletet is közé teszünk, amit bárki szabadon felhasználhat annak érdekében, hogy a kódolás automatikusan megtörténjen.

Csak be kell másolni az alábbi CSS kódot akár a konvertálni kívánt HTML dokumentumba, akár a hozzá kapcsolódó stíluslapba:

.chapter {
 counter-reset: paragraph;
 padding-left: 10px;}
p {
 text-align: justify;
 line-height: 1.22em;
 text-indent:1.2em;
 margin: 5px 0 0 7px;}
p:before {
 position: absolute;
 text-indent: 0px;
 left: 15px;
 padding-top: 2px;
 font-size: 80%;
 color: #888888;
 content: counter(paragraph);
 counter-increment: paragraph;}

A fenti kódrészlet ezt az oldalképet eredményezi (a különböző eszközökön és szoftvereken áttördelve bár, de hasonló megjelenés várható). Természetesen a kódot lehet finomítani, meg lehet változtatni, ami a lényeg az a counter elnevezésű tulajdonság a chapter és a paragraph definíciójában. A megoldás mind epub, mind pedig az új Kindle KF8 (AZW3) formátumban működik, tehát a legtöbb e-olvasó eszköz, illetve szoftver támogatja (Kindle Keyboard, Kindle Paperwhite, iPad, valamint Calibre használatával teszteltük ezt). Azon eszközök és szoftverek esetében, amelyek nem támogatják ezt a megoldást, a számozás nem fog megjelenni, de magát a szöveget, illetve annak formáját nem fogja megváltoztatni vagy netán összezavarni.

Tegyünk együtt azért, hogy egyre több tudomány-kompatibilis e-könyv szülessen, és ezzel segítsük a formátum elterjedését!

Life After New Media: Sarah Kember and Joanna Zylinska

Interview with media theorists Sarah Kember and Joanna Zylinska by Janneke Adema and Ben Craggs. The interview focuses on Kember and Zylinska's recently published co-authored monograph Life After New Media: Mediation as a Vital Process. Topics of conversation include amongst others the vitality of mediation, human agency, the 'Two Cultures' divide, the ethics of the cut, and our entanglement as interviewers in the becoming of the book. This interview was conducted on March 7th 2013 at Goldsmiths, University of London. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Post-Digital Print and Networks of Independent Publishing: Alessandro Ludovico

Interview with artist and media critic Alessandro Ludovico by Janneke Adema. The interview focus on the post-digital print condition, print-digital hybrids, independent and networked publishing and the potential of post-digital print projects to question, disturb, and subvert existing hegemonic and exploitative practices and institutions. This interview was conducted on January 31st 2013 in Berlin. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

The Late Age of Print and the Future of Cultural Studies: Ted Striphas

Interview with Ted Striphas, Associate Professor of Media & Cultural Studies at Indiana University, by Janneke Adema. The interview focuses on Striphas thoughts on the future of cultural studies and cultural politics, on problems related to the accessibility and control of scholarly material and on Striphas approach towards researching books. This interview was conducted on July 14th 2011 in Ghent. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

The Politics of Transparency and Secrecy: Mark Fenster

In this podcast, Mark Fenster, Professor of Law at The University of Florida, talks about transparency, open government and secrecy. Fenster is interviewed by Clare Birchall. This is part of the Culture Machine Live podcast series. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Network Theory and Internet Politics: Geert Lovink

Interview with Geert Lovink, media theorist, net critic and activist, by Janneke Adema. The interview focuses on Lovink's research practice, the nature of organized networks, alternative sites of knowledge production, the future of media studies and the colonization of real-time. This interview was conducted on May 19th 2011 in Amsterdam. For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Nyomtatott könyvek az AMERICANA eBooks-tól

Bár az AMERICANA eBooks elkötelezettje az e-könyveknek, igyekszik köteteit a lehető legszélesebb körben megismertetni, a lehető legtöbb érdeklődő olvasóhoz eljuttatni. Ezért könyveinket nyomtatott, puhafedeles változatban, print on demand rendszerben is kiadjuk a jövőben: az első puhafedeles kötetünk, a Tennessee Williams Hollywoodba megy, avagy a dráma és film dialógusa már elérhető az alábbi online boltokból:

Cultural Criticism and the Digital Humanities: Alan Liu

Interview with Alan Liu, Professor in the English Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara, by Janneke Adema. The interview focuses on Liu’s work and on his opinions on topics relating to amongst others the digital humanities, online reading, the future of the university, the role of sharing and openness, and changing research practices. This interview was conducted on May 19th 2011 in Amsterdam.

For more information about the online, open access journal Culture Machine, visit www.culturemachine.net

Hope IV: Peter Osborne (Whitechapel Salon)

The final in the series of Salons featuring major thinkers addressing the significance of Hope for contemporary society. Led by Peter Osborne, Professor of Modern European Philosophy, Middlesex University, and Co-Editor, Radical Philosophy. Chaired by David Cunningham and co-curated by Marquard Smith, University of Westminster.

Hope III: Chantal Mouffe (Whitechapel Salon)

Professor of Political Theory at the University of Westminster, Chantal Mouffe, responds to the theme of Hope in the third Whitechapel Gallery Salon featuring major thinkers on the topic. Hosted by Marquard Smithand co-curated by David Cunningham, University of Westminster. In association with: The Institute for Modern and Contemporary Culture, University of Westminster. Supported by: Stanley Picker Trust.

Hope II: Richard Sennett (Whitechapel Salon)

Richard Sennett writes about cities, labor, and culture. He teaches sociology at New York University and at the London School of Economics. Here he talks about the politics of hope in the Whitechapel Salon Series.

Hope I: Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (Whitechapel Salon)

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Director of the Institute for Comparative Literature and Society at Columbia University, responds to the theme of hope in the first of four seasonal Salons featuring world leading intellectuals.